Fangboy The Cat
Welcome to Fangboy Village Links. Fangboy is a Cat who has a story. He was a very young lad, a wandering stray, yes wandering the alleys in Miami. A rich lady from Boca Raton happened upon him and she took him in. When I met him he lived on a Oceanside estate on Hillsboro Mile in Light House Point. He didn't live in the main house, but neither did I. We were just happy to be there. Renters. Well, he never paid rent. I lived in the Kato Kaelin shack in the back. Who cares you're on the Ocean. I tried to get Fangboy his own movie.
Stuttgart Germany Combat Engineers
Were you stationed on
Ludendorff Kaserne
in Kornwestheim Stuttgart Germany?
Krave Kreations Unkmited LLC
Visit our store Krave Kreations Unlimited LLC
Krave Kreations Unlimited
Coming Soon - Our new Flagship store!
Check back next month.
My name is Chris Carter
I am a  author artist adventurer puppet maker animator musician magician anthropologist geospatial imagery intelligence analyst pixel wrangler powerpoint jedi sarcastic jaded wordsmith master procrastinator 

The newest project in the Laboratory is part of the oldest project. Back in 1983 I created "American Health Defense." It was supposed to be a new martial art based on Jeet Kune Do. At some point the name changed to TOTAL HEALTH DEFENSE because it was never really just an American thing. After all who would base their own health on politics or a corporation or what some guy on TV said, that makes no sense.

Now that we're in the cyber age physically fighting people to solve your problems is so last century. If Bruce Lee were here today he would be very evolved into new algorithms. He was ahead of his time and he still is. This is why we have to Decode Bruce Lee.

Decoding Bruce Lee Documentary

Chris Carter is the Author of "How To" Predict The Future" and also known for his famous virtual Duet with Fiona Apple, has anyone told Fiona yet? oh Nevermind, Chris met Liz Phair and a slew of famous 90's rock stars when he worked as Jerry's sidekick at the JBTV Music Video Show in Chicago. Here is UK band XTC showcasing some animations from the JBTV Music Video Show
XTC - All Along The Watchtower

Helgato Negro. This guy is amazing, he's like a massage for your brain. Check out his "Hometown Dreams"

Another Helgato Negro mind massage "Ghost Dance"

Dweezil Zappa narrating his Guitar Collection. Each one, its history and specifications.

The Collection: Dweezil Zappa

Here's MMB the Mike Michalak Band doing, "American Soldier." This song had no video so instead of using typical soldier imagery I used Signs, Stencils and artifacts from a Combat Base in Afghanistan to demonstrate what you would see if you went there on the battlefield on any given day.
MMB American Soldier
Its so funny this sole web page is the only living code, Fangboy Village, thats left of, survives from, my very first days on the internet. I was in the great AOL train robbery of 1996. Remember when the "www" internet first came out AOL charged you per hour. Can you imagine? I thought it was madness.

I was there in the beginning of the "www" internet. 1995. AOL was the bomb. But they charged you per minute and per hour to use the internet, I thought that's crazy talk. In December 1996 they changed it to a flat monthly rate. I signed up. It's been called, "Bloody Sunday." AOL almost went under. I signed up like one more of a million buffoons. Of course the AOL network promptly imploded. They were overwhelmed. It was a gold rush. A Tsunami of requests. They couldn't process everyone and they couldn't process refunds they couldn't even answer the phone for info. Nothing, no any anything. I quickly gave up ever getting my 20 bux back ($19.95) They still owe me today you AOL cowards. The January 1997 CNN Headline read, "AOL offers refunds to appease angry customers" I was headed to Hollywood by then. I wrote off AOL it was Roadtrip time. It was head to Hollywood to get ripped off by the Califonia DMV. About 4 years after I left California the DMV lost a Class Action Case for multiple financial shenanigans. They too still owe me CA DMV you cowards. 

CHRIS CARTER Creator of The Wheelie Circus Not the X-Files. Enter the Wheelie Circus at your peril. First Episode

Here we have Frank Zappa disagreeing with Einstein on the nature of Time.
Why would Frank disagree with Albert?

History of the 563rd Combat Engineer Battalion. The 563rd EN BN was located in Ludendorff Kaserne, Kornwesthiem Stuttgart Germany 1980-1981. 563rd HHC the 503rd Engineer Company the 38th Engineer Company

Running Halfa Horsie Ted call me. 

Bogart 9 Tips for Business
Bogart 9 Social Media Management Links

Visit the YogaPets page and see how your Pet can be Enlightened

Where all your animals are SmartPets

The Real Frank Zappa

A few of the Ye Ole Villagers and wayward citizens of the mind.

The "Mother of All" Frank Zappa Sites
Zappa Donlope

Zappa Wiki Jawaka
has 5,153 articles about the life, times and music of Frank Zappa.

Here's the Official Zappa site

Zappa childhood friend Captain Beefheart Cal Schenkal The artist for Zappa's best album covers. Brillant. Calvin Schenkal and R.Crumb are the two best artists in the world. Bunyons mate!
Greg Lake- Yes it's him THAT Greg Lake from ELP
Kate Bush She has nice website that girl can sing.
Angelique Kidjo World Music Queen

One of my favorite bands of the 90's are so underrated its criminal. From Athens Georgia "The Judybats." They're album NATIVE SON is a masterpiece, really. Every song is super tight. Check it out-
02/) NATIVE SON Album Title Track
03/) INCOGNITO this is a Fan Made video, great song!
04/) CONVALESCING IN SPAIN perhaps Alicanti ?
07/) COUNTING SHEEP I'm making the video for this one

Alice Cooper talking about getting sober. Amazing.
New Interview Alice Cooper With Dan Rather

Joe Walsh advising Sammy Hagar how to get sober. Amazing.
Sammy Hagar asking Joe Walsh HOW do you do it!

Billy Connolly talking to Conan about getting sober. Amazing.
Billy Connolly Explaining to Conan about Getting sober

Evel Knievel explaining what alcohol does to your body
Your Body Is Like A Engine says Evel Knievel

What, Mental Health? Bob Newhart showing everybody how it all works. This is not a joke not a parody this is 100% reality out there The question is were humans always like this? Or is it only because of our new life expectancy? Only in the last 150 years?

Bob Newhart STOP IT Therapy

THE SECRET TO LIVING IN AMERICA - Freedom is not free. Buy Your Freedom in 3 Step$. How to get rich? Stop trying. Stop buying. Stop lying to your Self. Stop living beyond your means just because you think you never can. Stop the bleeding. The more you live beyond your means the more this is gonna cost you. You gotta either make more or spend less. Which is easier?
1.) Stop EVERYTHING and get out of debt.
2.) Live Within your means.
3.) Now cut that in half.
  Implement the "Life Algorithm" here's how it goes:
Don't Sink The Ship. You can do anything you want but you can't sink the ship.

In school you are given no Fiscal Literacy. You are setup to be a financial slave (that's so you can support the rest of us to live in freedom). That's how the economy, the medical system and the food chain is setup. Not for you. All these "tax incentives" setup by the retirement "industry" mainly benefit people who don't need it, not you. It's a closed bubble. George Carlin said, "The table is tilted, folks, the game is rigged.”
Carlin added, “It’s a big club and you ain’t in it.”

My theory is things are evolving faster than humankind can keep up with. That's why there's this feeling today the country is going backwards when really it's just not keeping up with the new version of Forwards. If everyone ate correctly starting tomorrow morning the economy would collapse. The good news is you don't have to outrun that Grizzly Bear chasing you. You just need to outrun the slowest guy in the group. The secret is to be poor but live rich. If you have no debts it's all pretty simple. Everything about America is to sucker you into debts so you can support the fat cats. Stop playing their game! Just Stop It- The Bob Newhart Stop It Therapy

Ten things designed to rip you off - STOP IT ; Prescription Glasses, Anything For A Wedding, Auto Sales, Divorces and Dental Insurance, Clothing, Crypto, College Textbooks, Cars That Run By Computers, Funerals, Bottled Water, Starbucks, Anything At Theme Parks, Strip Clubs, Casinos, 1/3 of the Internet, 1/3 the stuff at the grocery store.

Tao Te Ching – Verse 33 If you realize that you have enough,
 you are truly rich.
The Fixx - How Much Is Enough?
If you live in America and you have no debts -You Are Rich. By analyzing the tax code and looking at personal finance through the lens of financial independence, you can develop your own advanced strategies, spreadsheets and freedom. All this talk about retiring is nonsense. Retirement means you’re beginning to end. You should never retire. What you should do is run your business on your terms. Business means work on what you like doing. Take time off any time. Work from anywhere. If you own a Home that IS a business. Why do you live like a financial slave and let politicians get you to vote against your own interests? You never put diesel in your gas engine so what is there to not understand? Stop It.
Mr. Money Mustache

The whole country seems to be displaying the same odd behavior: living ridiculously, beyond their means while thinking they are completely normal, and then being baffled when they have no money left over to buy their own freedom. All while being so busy that they didn’t even have time to investigate the science behind this behavior. This freedom is achieved not through luck or amazing skill, but simply by living a lifestyle about 50% less expensive. The economy is made for to you to think you can "live the dream" even though your broke. Stop it.
  Mad Fientist
At the grocery store you buy 9 items and come out with 12 bags. Plastic bags. Plastic is everywhere and nobody cares. It's been this way since the beginning of time. Only a small group of people are aware. Here is Professor John Boik on the bigger picture with his "Systems Approach" to us humans living long eating wrong, clueless, beyond our means. Stop it. We need to do what he's talking about BEFORE super AI gets here and does it for us (to us) in a way we don't really like, prefer.
  Engineer Data Scientist John Boik Interview

Roger Daltrey was on Brian Johnson's TV Show. They were on their old childhood street, where they both grew up, and Roger said as teens they all loved, "The Shadows" doing their hit "Apache" ooohhhh.
Here it is, five dudes in suits, Roger and Brian made fun of them just standing so still.
This 90's Band started in the 80's. Check out the Indie band "Too Much Joy" they have a really in-depth blog wow it's like a archeology dig, . , its like a Time Tunnel ~
XTC, Monty Python and Thomas Dolby
GENESIS, Robert Fripp and The Tubes
Here is Tony Levin Road Diary Page, very cool [Peter Gabriel road dogs]

Truckin Dude
The Ozark Music Festival 1974 who remembers that train wreck? Giant Music Festival in the 1970's, what could go wrong with that... the comments are a time capsule! 


Computer Tech Radio Shows

Cool Movie Posters Movie Posters! Be careful this is addicting.

Jon Stewart The Daily Show Archives

Musical Links Like get your Dub at World Dub-
World Dub
and here some Dub mon
Dub Flash

Afro Pop Worldwide with Host Georges Collenit

Joan Armatrading

Steve Hackett site moved to Steve Hackett Songs
Daryl Stuermer Official site Daryl Stuermer
Anthony Phillips Genesis Anthony Phillips

ny Phil
The MaKINg oF 1981 album "Security" great piece from a TV Show in 1982

PETER GABRIEL 1 (album 1976, tour 1977) ny Phill
PETER GABRIEL 2 (album 1978, tour 1978) ny Phill
PETER GABRIEL 3 (album 1979, tour 1980) ny Phill
(album 1981, tour 1982-1983)
(Recorded 1982 - 1983 tour)

Recall Jerry Marotta plays drums on virtually every PG solo record. Jerry has a band with this dude Thom Griesgraber… the name of their band.. what else… Marotta/Griesgraber They are the opening band for the Tony Levin Band.
Tom Griesgraber is one of the world’s most respected and active performers on The “Chaman Stick” yes its a stick! Tony Levin learned it from this guy. 

Developed by Emmett Chapman early 1970s, combines six guitar strings tuned in fourths with six bass strings tuned in fifths. Notes are “tapped” rather than strummed. Taking things even further, Tom adds a third synthesizer output on the guitar side and incorporates live looping and synth pedals into his performances. Tom
Griesgraber website

Peter Gabriel D
rummer Jerry Marotta
Digital Global Mobile Record label by Robert Fripp
San Fran here we go,... The TUBES band they rock yes The Tubes

More Tubes below!


My Bruce Lee Jeet Kune Do website is all about where it's going in 20 and 30 years. A good website about where it came from is this group, they have some original Bruce Lee students and so much first hand history. They are the real deal here-
Jeet Kune Do Wednesday Meetings In California

People Finder Search (Free)

The Mike Michalak Band support your local heros MMB

....The Bogart 9 TV Channels are at small towns across America.... 

Bogart 2 BabyOatmeal Media Circus
The BabyOatmeal Channel

Bogart 9 Chris Carter TV The Bogart 9 Channel
Bogart 7 The Bogart 7 Cabaret Metro
Bogart 8
The Bogart 8 Channel
Bogart 4
More Bogart 4 Channel Four
Bogart 5 The Bogart 5 Show
Bogart 1 The Marionette Channel
The secret algorithm is here

Guest Ralph Nader Reflects On His Auto Safety Campaign 55 Years ago, "Unsafe at Any Speed.” It's hard to imagine a world without seatbelts or airbags. Back then it was the norm for car manufacturers to put glamour over safety. "It was stylistic pornography over engineering integrity.” The book Unsafe at Any Speed had a massive effect on auto safety bringing laws about seatbelts and creation of the Dept of Transportation. The corporations tried to block and stop Ralph “at any cost” by spying on him, threatening his life, having agents tail him. It all backfired, they got caught.

This same scenario happens over and over, like with Lead Chips in Paint, Agent Orange, Water supply contaminated with hexavalent chromium causing Hodgkin's lymphoma (Erin Brokovich) and canceled attorney Joe diGenova trying to stop Homeland Security official Chris Krebs because he debunked election myths and conspiracy theories that endanger everyone. Joe diGenova said Krebs “should be drawn and quartered,” and “Taken out at dawn and shot.” Who's side is Joe on geez.. (Tip: shoot him first before you draw and quarter).

Links to Bookmark  ... but oh wait here they already are, Bookmarked!
Hidden Brain
Host Shankar Vedantam, "Lots of people are really good at thinking, but few are good at Re-thinking. Many of us have lost the ability to marvel at our own minds." How you talk to your Self makes all the difference in the world.

Hidden Brain with Host Shankar Vedantam
This American Life
Host Ira Glass interviews guests about psychology and world events that we should be aware of. This American Life

Science Friday
Host Ira Flatow (is everyone named Ira?) interviews scientists and important guests like Ralph Nader. NPR Science Friday

On Point
Host Meghan Chakrabarti speaks with real people, like cyber security guru Chris Krebs. On Point - Meghan Chaka

Host Krista Tippet has conversation about the big questions of meaning — spiritual inquiry, science, social healing, and the arts.
On-Being with Host Krista Tippett

To The Best of Our Knowledge
Host Anne Strainchamps explorese big ideas with philosopher, writers, artists, scientists, and historians.


The 1A Podcast from WAMU
Host Jen White looks beyond the headlines with stories we can better explain complicated issues.

The PodCast 1A
Go through time in each episode to examine culture and history to see what we missed.

Throughline PodCast
Freakanomics Radio

The Peoples Pharmacy Show
This a Must-BookMark website by Joe and Terry Graedon. They help you by teaching, writing, and broadcasting information so folks can make informed decisions about their health.

Health Literacy is something you just can't have too much of. What you can have is too much bad information. Misinformation Overload is bad for your health. The Radio Show is archived here in episodes. They go in the weeds on a lot of different subjects that may not pertain to you. Choose the ones that fit your social construct, your biological footprint, your physiological profile and all your mental optimization strategies.
When did I own myself?

The simple idea that I own my own self and own my happiness, was brand new radical thinking. In 1776. This begs the question WHAT were we thinking before this? For 30,000 years what were we thinking? The idea that you own your self that you own your happiness is a recent concept? Who knew. Fortunately we would never ban books, but in other countries they do ban books and re-write history. If people never get the memo they start believing the wrong things. In 1949 George Orwell said, If you can own the past you can own the future. He predicted peddling misinformation would threaten all Mankind let alone democracy. 

Do we forget so quickly in 1776 the idea, that, "all mankind are created equal; with the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness" was considered a radical new concept? You mean I no longer have to be a slave to the King, to the Landowner or corrupt businessmen or the bank or any kind of businessmen? How cool is that. I can own my happiness I can sell it. Where was Lollapalooza when we needed it?

If we never knew we had a right to life, Liberty, and we were created equal, and had the right to pursue our happiness, -what was the deal before we knew this? Whatever we were told? Why was it that nobody brought this up until Thomas Jefferson wrote it down? Nobody brought up a lot of things until Jefferson wrote it down, like antitrust laws.

Thomas Jefferson brought up the conversation about antitrust provisions in 1790 but it took a hundred years for the first antitrust law to be enacted in 1890 in Iowa. It was the farmers — reacting to abusive business practices by monopolistic grain elevators and railroads — that led the effort for fair markets and competition in 1890.

Ok after the first antitrust law was enacted in 1890, go forward a hundered years to 1980, antitrust laws begin to erode. We've been going backwards for 50 years now.

Big-business-friendly government officials have worked to undermine and reverse labor, environmental and other laws to ensure robust competition and impede consolidation of power through accumulation of capital.

This pesky Bill of Rights defending freedom of religion, freedom of the press, and freedom of commerce against monopolies, there are folks today, if they had their say, none of these three would make the cut. Are we really going backwards?

We really do need to make sure history is not just taught but is available for all to view. Goerge Orwell said, "Whoever controls the past controls the future."

Thomas Jefferson, through his friendship with Marquis de Lafayette, was heavily influenced by French philosophers such as Voltaire, Rousseau and Montesquieu. In their often CENSORED writings, those philosophers advocated that men were born free and equal. This later led to the French Revolution of 1789 and the concept of Human Rights. As usual not everybody got the memo.

Fanfare Playhouse

Common Man: You mean I own my own body? I am FREE to live and be happy?
Messenger: Yes
Common Man: Well WTF how come nobody ever bloody told me this?
Messenger: Because you never asked?
Common Man: Why I oughta kill you.
Messenger: Don't shoot me.
Common Man: All this time I work like a slave I am a slave and it was known that I own my body and my self?  
Messenger: Well Skippy what did you expect. You would be let in on everything? And Overlords couldn't exploit you and create greedy monopolies?
Common Man: Oh. Oh ok. Hey thanks.
Messenger: Anytime pal.

Everybody and his cousin wants to come to America. Our Border can only accommodate a certain number. How do we decide who to help? Ukraine needs our help. Israel needs our help. The women in Somalia, Ethiopia and Sudan need our help. What about Haiti and Burkina Faso, they need us badly. The Republic of Congo deserves help, I think they got screwed over more than anybody over the centuries if we're doing a triage here.

Every activist and Help Group thinks they are the priority. They'll say, "I got photos" like that automatically means they are number one. They are. And so is everybody else. What do we do, print more money? Oh wait we already do that. There has to be something we can do. Somewhere we can start. I have an answer. It's called SUKHI 222. Why do we spend over 50 billion dollars a year on bottled water? Go visit SUKHI 222.

books for bogart 9

The Declaration of Independence declared in 1776 from now on people are born with the right to life and can pursue happiness. Everyone in that room was born before 1776. So everyone born before 1776 wasn't born with the right to life? That's not what the Bible says. Good thing I was born way after 1900. It further declares I was born with Liberty free from oppressive restrictions imposed by authority on one's way of life, behavior, or political views. Isn't that more about where I was born rather than how I was born? If I was born with this Liberty this protection from false arrest, torture, and political murder then I should be safe wherever I go because I was born this way. Okay.

If I get abducted will the kidnappers know I'm bulletproof? I'm worried if my kidnappers don't believe in God then they will consider human rights just another political opinion, meaningless basically. Maybe God is like the Blockchain. Whether God is real or not isn't the main point, the point is that we need something to "verify" that we are in the same club. The club that recognizes human rights. If God uses Blockchain crypto algorithm SHA256 bit encryption we should be authenticated and safe from "false Gods."

That way if we recognize each others 256 bit crypto hash then we know the other person is in the human rights club. It's like "God Currency." Paper fiat currency is just a human social construct that is made-up, it's not a real thing, it's not backed by Gold or anything anymore. This is why BitCoin is a threat to Fiat paper currency. You ever notice that people who don't believe in the same God or the same culture, government or society are more than willing to use the same money.

I invented just the thing. It's called Geospatial Health Psychology Crypto Currency. Except I don't use SHA 256 encryption. I use a organic algorithm. It's much more powerful than SHA 256 or any digital algorithm.

It took until 1776 so that means for a thousand centuries leaders and rulers never told us about this stuff. Even in 1776 nobody piped up. Until, Tom Jefferson who said something like, "dang blammit I've had it with this folly, time for a new idea" and he wrote it down. In school we're never taught why this took so long. I want reparations. Could've been done a long time earlier. Everybody has an excuse and a ruse to cover history. Thank God Al Gore invented the internet so we could look this all up.

The contradiction between the claim that "all men are created equal" and the existence of American slavery, including Thomas Jefferson himself owning slaves, attracted comment when the Declaration of Independence was first published. Before final approval, Congress deleted nearly a fourth of the draft, including a passage criticizing the slave trade. At that time many other members of Congress also owned slaves. Even today politi
cians always try to change or erase history. If America did not come along would it be another 1,000 years before someone brought it up? What was the rest of the world thinking?

SUKI 222 global clean water project
What is the SUKHI 222 Project?
SUKHI222 is a global project to get a foothold in every country to insure everyone on earth has a minimum of 2 gallons of fresh water per person per day. The idea that some clean water each day is your "Right," why is this so radical? Why do we even have to make this a declaration? Maybe it's because humans always took water for granted and always wasted it. That party is over.

Do we forget so quickly in 1776 it was considered the idea that "all mankind are created equal; with the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness" this was considered a radical new concept. Who'ddah thunk.

As we look around the world at how difficult it is for democracy and freedom to take hold and flourish, America does seems like a political miracle. How could such bare bones basic things like pursuit of happiness or a clean glass of water be considered so unique, improbable and radical?

Is it such a unique and improbable concept in 2023 that every person on earth should have a little bit of fresh water each day? A bed to sleep in and a few calories each day? Radical isn't it. Visit the SUKHl222 Project, just to see what's it's all about. Stop using plastic bags, and don't waste water!

See what it's about-
SUKHI 222 in 2 Minutes

Do the dead outnumber the living?

By Wesley Stephenson BBC News


The population of the planet reached eight billion in October, according to the United Nations. But what's the figure for all those who have lived before us?

The living do not outnumber the dead. Not even close. I dunno why the BBC asks such a silly question. How many people ever were here, ever? Jerry Garcia is no longer with us. The dead, I mean all the people every last one of them who have has ever lived ever, is in the several 10s of billions. Alice Cooper said, "I Love The Dead.

Well I have the Chart Of The Dead. It shows the major moments in all of history where the most number of humans died like the Black Plague. I have to find the Chart. Before I die. I made it like 10 years ago.

Scientists say the number of people who have ever lived ever from the beginning of humans is between 60 and 105 billion. Thats quite a spread. My question is, in all that time what was the majority cause of death? Disease, war, incest, murder, incest along with murder, what. Cleopatra was the last generation of the Ptolemaic Dynasty, it died out from incest and family murder. The point is more often than not the cause of demise was something human related. That says alot. Stay out of your own way and life will favor you! How do you do that? It's all right here in
Decoding Bruce Lee

Geospatial Crypto Currency
We're on a rocky road right now, with the young people having a crisis. If you have anxiety don't negate it navigate it. If you have confusion and uncertainty don't fear it steer it.   

Change is here. Humans suddenly doubled and tripled their life expectancy in little over 100 years. This is too sudden. Too soon. To be thrust into the verification of science and reality. For 231,573 eons humans believed whatever anyone said. We are now in the age of Authentication of verification of Information. Yes society "appears" to be collapsing. It's not. It's just adapting to change and people don't like change.

Our cognitive dissonance has to catch up. In the meantime some clever stooge could feed us a bullshit version of our past and take control of our future. Are we ducks in a barrel?

Engineer Data Professor John Boik explains what we should do about our disconnect-
The Systems Approach To Planet Earth

List of Fitness websites
What if you just visit the website does that count as Fitness?
Take one idea from each website and you're good as gold.
Fitness Websites


Entering Ye Olde Village Training Centre Digitale


Be Prepared


CHICAGO: Studio Run And Gun circa 1992
Run And Gun 1992

It was the 1990's the world was changing. Who knew.

Duelin Fireman Logo

Now what . . . a documentary about Run And Gun and the 1990's?
Yes it's the Run And Gun Duelin' Firemen Documentary oh boy here we go.

What is Duelin' Firemen?
It's sort of a campy humor highly stylized ridiculously absurdist surreal primary hue stocked to the gills with cultural leanings and pop psychology in a almost virtual reality that is hitherto unknown to the young people today.

This could be the greatest documentary ever told (not greatest story that's the Bible) why the greatest documentary ever told? Because the 1990's is the exact divide in the roughly 80 year transition from the analog world to the digital world. We are the last generation in human history to touch up against the analog world. In a hundred years they will look back at us as in one of the greatest transitions in all human history.

In the analog world everyone was innocent until proven guilty. In the digital world it is somewhat the opposite, everyone is suspect until verified. You no longer answer the phone, the phone answers the phone and then you decide whether to talk. Never before in history did everyone know what everyone is doing. It's the birth of the digitization of information for the verification of authentication. That's a fancy way of saying it's the democratization of reality, fact, and truth. No longer kept by a select few at the top.

Analog Digital Divide

For 30,000 years there never was a definition of health. It was always if you woke up in the morning you were healthy. If you made it to Friday you were successful. You rarely made it past 30 or 40 years old. Then suddenly out of the millennia, our 1990's generation, for the first time ever human life expectancy has doubled and tripled. Is the human mind ready for this sudden expansion? (No it isn't) Health has changed more in the past 50 years than the past 5,000 years. Lifespan was always capable of 90 or 100, life expectancy could never get that far. Until now.

In the analog world you never had a way to authenticate information you just had to believe whatever anybody told you. In the News they'll have you believe "truth" is somehow going away when its the exact opposite. Truth, Fact, Reality, is coming down upon us like rain and many people are not happy about this hence their view "truth" is going away. In other words every year it gets harder to just make shit up.

In the 1990's the internet changed reality. Reality is not a thing it's a Time Constraint. A moving target. Time is (was always) a analog measurement of the past to present. The idea of a clock revolves around making observation more accurate, all that does is create more observations -that you’re lucky to see, if you have the time.

The idea of digitization means EVERYTHING can be seen (tagged). Nothing is invisible anymore. Everything can have a digital ID and also a grid coordinate. A car, a cup, a conversation, a thought, a fart, a dog, a reaction, groups and sub groups, the sky’s the limit to what can be “tagged” and once its tagged (give it a grid too) you put it into a database. Now each ID/Grid-Coord is a Layer on a Map. Layers never seen "together" are now seen together. Suddenly you can SEE the past move along the Map thus enabling you to guess (predict) the future. The more combinations, the more accuracy. Humans are more predictable than not.

This used to be secret military stuff not too long ago (end of the 90’s). Meanwhile it was thought impossible to predict the future. Today this is not only possible it's become a business model. Netflix, Google, Amazon, Walmart, etc. Predicting what we will watch, buy, eat, where we will go, before even we do. This “geospatial intelligence” is no secret anymore its everywhere and expanding. This all started in the 1990's. We were right there.

geospatial data visualization

Duelin Firemen Documentary
Duelin' Firemen Documentary and the History of Run And Gun

Video Game Duelin' Firemen
Mark Mothersbaugh
Timothy Leary
David Yow
Steve Albini
Rudy Raymore
Chris Carter
They just don't make'em like this anymore.  Grady Sain, Tony Gold, Sandra Stokes, Brien Rullman, Mike DiGoia,... Jedi Animator DavyForce aka David Foss digital craftsman director extraordinaire. The Treanor Brothers Todd and Paul are Master Animators. PART OF THE CAST OF THOUSANDS: millions
Duelin' Firemen brings together music, and a love of sort of campy low-budget humor and graphics. It's highly stylized, the whole premise is ridiculously absurdist. The pioneering 3DO Game has a beautiful primary hue, and it’s stocked to the gills with a lot of folks who can inform your cultural leanings. 3DO creator Trip Hawkins was at the studio one day. I wasn't there. I would have talked to him.

Trip Hawkins was the Director of Strategy and Marketing at Apple Computer in 1982 when he left to found Electronic Arts (EA) video game publisher. One of Hawkins first big wins was to sign the late John Madden as a spokesperson and a consultant to his company's football game which would eventually lead to the popular Madden NFL series of video games.
Trip Hawkins transitioned from EA in 1991 to form 3DO video game console company. 3DO was formed in partnership with several other companies including EA. Upon its release in 1993, the 3DO was the most powerful video game console at the time. It was also expensive. Sales were poor due to its exorbitant price. Hopes for the system were further damaged in 1994 with the arrival of the Sony PlayStation and Sega Saturn, both of which were more expensive than the 3DO but had more modern hardware and stronger first party support.

While acknowledging the 3DO's failure in the marketplace, Next Generation listed Trip Hawkins in their "75 Most Important People in the Games Industry of 1995", calling him "one of the game market's visionaries."

Duelin' Firemen cast o characters
Mark Mothersbaugh Devo Muzak
Timothy Leary Harvard Professor he swoops so high he swoops so low he knows exactly which way to go, Timothy Leary.
David Yow The Jesus Lizard Band Chicago yes he is.
Steve Albini
Rudy Raymoore
Actor, where were you in 1975? Rudy Raymoore was DOLEMITE! He rocks.
Chris Carter Author. Animator. Producer. Musician wannabe. Editor. Dreamer. Pro Crasstinator.

See members of Run and Gun here in the Wheelie Circus- First Episode

Step inside Duelin' Firemen - ENTER THE 3DO GAME FROM CHICA
Here is
some history of Duelin' Firemen- HISTORICAL INFORMATION

Banjo Gyro

Yes you seen that correct, that is the infamous Banjo Gyro!
From Director Grady Sain

Director Grady Sain

You have never seen anything like this before. Buckle up and check it out.

Play Grady Sain's Banjo Gyro right now click here quickly!

That was pioneering game animators RunAndGun not to be confused with pioneering indie music video producers H-Gun.
H-Gun, where are they now? Prolly pioneering?
Oh here they R now

Let me tell you a tale.....

'Bout a handsome little fox let me sing you folks a yarn.
Hey, diddle-dee daddle-da doddle-do doodle-dum!
'Twas a splendid little feller full of wit 'n' grace 'n' charm.
Say, zippy-zee zappa-za yappy-yo doodle-dum!

Well, like any little critter needin' vittels for his littl'uns,
Well he hustled, and he connived just to survive.
With a doodle-dum diddle-die doddle-diddle doodle-dum!
Zippy-zo zippy-zay zippy-zappy zoopy-zee!
Doo-dah doo-day day

Let me take a little tick now to color in the scene:
'Cross the valley lived three yokels name of Boggis, Bunce, and Bean.
Now these three crazy jackies had our hero on the run.
Shot the tail off the cuss with a fox-shootin' gun.
But that stylish little fox was as clever as a whip
Dug as quick as a gopher that was hyper-ack-a-tive.

Now those three farmers sit
'Twhere there's a hole 'twas once a hill.
Singin' diddle-dee daddle-da doddle-do doodle-dum!
And as far as I can reckon
They're a-settin' up there still.
Singin' zippy-zee zappa-za yappy-yo


The algorithm used to predict your future is not really about predicting your future. It states that the path of the least amount of risk offers the most amount of predictable outcome, even if that outcome is not what you predicted. Your goal is not to predict the future. You might win in life you might not, that's okay, just don't lose. There exists a best strategy leading to a predetermined outcome that can contain many outcomes. You can't predict your future directly because its not about you, its about the path. If the path is predictable and you're on it, then your predictable. Therefore, you don't even need to predict the future TO PREDICT IT.

The outcome of this theory is determined even before you make any moves. In life you do not know the most rational strategy and thus make “mistakes.” As long as you're on the path the mistakes will be small enough not to alter your course off the path. The path is a margin of acceptable outcomes. The path is determined by the earth. The earth is the only thing that is not man-made. The classic "Trolley Problem" never takes this into account. I mean WHY were they there? WHO got there first? Two critical deal breakers they never even ask! It's all about the paths. Life is about paths.

How to find the path? You must understand how paths are made in the first place. It was a long time ago on a dark and rainy night, when only anarchy reigned through the land. Someone figured out that the opposite of anarchy is not stability. Stability sounds good but its not to be trusted. The opposite of anarchy is Order. Only Order can give morality meaning. Stability does not mean good, it just means nothing is happening right now. Stability masquerades as Peace. Stability is just a lull in anarchy and its ready to explode any moment. Stability seems like a good idea because doing nothing doesn't offend anybody. Deliberately doing nothing does offend somebody. How do you do nothing not on purpose? Order and non-deliberate Inaction are not compatible. Inaction can easily masquerade as Peace. Order uses formal inequality to maintain harmony through consensus. Equality masquerades as Peace but "total" equality equals decay and breakdown. Can you dig? Are you still with me?

Order is hierarchical inequality. Order destroys equality in creative destruction. Order is the goal of government because governments role is survival, not creating equality. Order always eventually breaks down too but its the lesser of two evils. Orderly inequality has a better chance of preventing war than stability and total equality. Orderly inequality always favors somebody somehow this is why Socialism can appear to be more attractive because it pretends we are all the same but it cannibalizes the future in order to sustain itself. Socialism works by personality. Democracy works by peaceful transition. Socialism is great until you inevitably run out of personalities. Socialism is wonderful power. Democracy is wonderful predictability. Whadda you want power or predictability? Power has no predictability. Whereas predictability contains power. It's two for one. Take it.

Order knows equality is an illusion. Order can give equality without killing the illusion. Deliberately not favoring anyone does not really create equality. True harmony hurts, we have to deal with it. Politicians make a living creating policies that dodge pain. All that does is screw the next generation. Boom and bust. Bubbles always burst. We are currently stealing the future, selling it in the present, and calling it GDP. That's not socialism, that's not Democracy, that's sleight of hand. Our Capitalism today has become: One side preys upon the other and both sides are in on it. In other words if everyone ate correctly starting tomorrow morning - The economy would collapse. 


Bill Burr CONAN politics
Bill Burr is over the top.

Bill Burr CONAN politics

R. Crumb Artwork and Museum

R Crumb and his early experience with women
R Crumb Official site

R Crumb Museum
R Crumb Exhibition
R Crumb Sketches and Covers

Friends again
"I feel that my work is but a feeble expression of something that in itself is vague and doubtful...Sometimes when I probe myself I find that my intentions in art aren't as sincere as they should be...I realize that I'm fairly good at drawing, but you see that's only because I've done so much of it, and it seems sometimes that the only reason I have stuck at it so diligently is because I have to sort of get even with society for not accepting me...Subconsciously I want to make myself immortal among men, leave my mark on the earth to compensate for social inadequacy...So I draw...If I got rid of my greatness complex. I probably would lose my desire to draw. It seems to me that a true artist is a man who is passionately in love with line, form, color or some aspect of life... While these things appeal to me, I don't find any real burning passion for them within myself...The only burning passion I'm sure I have is the passion for sex...
- R. Crumb, Sept. 29, 1961
Gathering of Friends last Supper
R. Crumb
"The trouble with the rat race is that even if you win, you are still a rat."
-- Lily Tomlin
THE TUBES are a pioneering San Francisco Art Rock band. The TUBES PROJECT website has been abandoned and taken over by Spammers, do not visit that one visit this one The TUBES YOUTUBE TV channel
The Tubes Project

The is also good. The Tubes Rock The World!
The Tubes Live "Maratonrock" is from Germany and recorded in Sweden 1983. The concerts took place in Westfalen Halle in Dortmund west Germany 14/5-83 and were introduced in swedish TV 30/7-83. The order of bands: Nena, Men at Work, The Tubes, Ultravox, Little River Band, Robert Palmer and B-52's
It was more maratonrock 1983 in swedish TV: 29/1-83 and 16/4-83.
Classic Tubes, here is good photos of the Classic Tube
s in days of yore!

Reverend Billy C Werts is now on WMNF Radio. See his show in Schedules Link
Bebop Deluxe - Bill Nelson

Allan Watts on psychedelic drug use, "When you get the message, hang up the phone."

Music exec Bruce Kapp dies at 57. Concert Promotion Touring industry veteran Bruce Kapp, who is credited with helping to develop the concept of national gigging, was born with concerts on the brain: While in high school, he booked bands in and around his hometown, Chicago. After receiving a degree in marketing from Northwestern University (Evanston, Ill.), Kapp opened his own talent agency, which booked bands throughout the Midwest.

By the 1970s, he formed Celebration Concerts, a concert-promotion company whose clients included the Super Bowl of Rock series at Chicago's Soldier Field stadium featuring Emerson Lake and Palmer, Pink Floyd, Ted Nugent and Peter Frampton. "Celebration-Flipside" promoted many top acts of the 70's. Crazy Frank worked there and he had no drivers Liciense, so the deal was, give him a ride to the Show and you get backstage Passes! Crazy Frank RIP

Chicago underground TV and radio history

The Magic Door - a Jewish Kid Show
in Chicago area and suburbs

The Magic Door was a Jewish educational TV series aimed at providing kiruv (outreach) to Jewish children in the Chicago, Illinois metropolitan area. The show was produced by the Jewish Federation of Chicago; and premiered January 1, 1962. The show ran weekly until January 1, 1982 that aired at 7:00 AM every Sunday morning on WBBM-TV.

The main characters of the series included "Tiny Tov" (a character "reduced" to appear as a kind of elf), and two hand puppets named "Scrunch" and "Judy". Tiny lived in a house that was made out of an acorn, the entrance was "The Magic Door".

Each week, Tiny Tov would travel back through time riding his Magic Feather. Each week he would educate Jewish children on Jewish history, sharing stories from Torah.

A-room zoom zoom
A-room zoom zoom
Gily gily gily gily gily
A-sa, sah.
Come through the Magic Door with me
Just say these words and wondrous things you'll see! WGN TV channel 9 shows-
Creature Features
Horror Movies
Historic Chicago Television WGN TV

WNUR Northwestern University "Antidote Radio" - 1980's Highland Park, Illinois

JBTV Music Video This Show is and always was about MUSIC. NO corruption, no corporate PlayList, no payola. The record companies used to bring all the artists to JBTV that MTV wouldn't play. Yes MTV used to actually play Music Videos! Long time ago. The first half of the 90's MTV was dying but it wasn't dead yet. They had a very tight VooDoo formulae to get things on the playlist. JBTV benefited off this and had some excellent Music Videos in the period I worked there from 1990 - 1995. By the end O the 90s I would say MTV was all was completely brain dead. It's playlist excluded 90 percent of the Music videos out there. Because of that many people have mistakenly gone so far as to say that Music Video is a limited artistic medium, even claiming it's ruined the music business. The corrupted playlist of MTV has always been cited as proof. The fact is the music business was dooming itself just fine without including the folly of MTV's narrow corporate playlist. Contrary to what a lot of people say including some musicians themselves "Music Video" is not a limiting medium. It can be! That doesn't mean it IS.

Politics is like the 1,000 clowns at the circus who get out of the tiny car, and you're supposed to be amazed. That's what politics is. They don't really stick their heads in the tiger's mouth. Politics is a bunch of show and blow for people who don't understand. The real decisions are not conducted at the polling place; they're conducted over a glass of Perrier in some luxurious resort where people with lots of bucks decide how they're going to chop up the world.

"Politics is the entertainment branch of industry" Politics is bullshit, basically, it's salesmanship.
We have a diverse population in the United States, with all kinds of different needs that have to be taken care of. That is the righteous function of government.
Government is about statesmanship not salesmanship. If you are making political statements, remember, you are not addressing the real needs of government. You're just talking about the Madison Avenue aspect.

What does it mean when people say they don’t believe in science? Or they do but they say that science is always changing? As the great Voltaire once said, “If you wish to converse, define your terms.” Is it science the verb or science the noun? The verb means an approach to knowledge, to philosophy as methods for developing an understanding of reality. The noun means some sort of truth “proven.” In other words science is a map and science is a destination. That’s two different things.  

A good algorithm can provide both. Some ambiguity, complexity, statistics and details of scientific evidence as well as in combination with -confident narratives and heartwarming testimonials (that contain far less real evidentiary value).  

The latter without the former gives faith-based explanations a significant public relations advantage over science and skepticism. But the fact remains that truth is messy and full of uncertainty, and if someone is selling telling you something as extremely simple, clear-cut, and too good to be true, they probably are selling you a hope or a fantasy, not a reality. Nothing wrong with hope! Just don’t bet the Farm on it. 

We were just talking about Pet products that will kill your dog and cat. Flea Collars! Don’t use them, it’s a scam, and can be dangerous. For good info look at this "Science Based Pet Health" website. Not just Pets it has a great explanation / definition of science in general. It says science means anything and everything can and does change. But that's not how we live our life. We live life with propositions that achieve a level of supporting evidence that makes any serious doubt about their truth perverse and irrational. 

Wow that’s just very profound. All your nutty friends that have a problem believing in science send them here to this page -

What Does “Scientifically Proven” Really Mean?

The Skeptvet - What Does Scientifically Proven Really Mean

Useful Technology tips. Founded in 2007, MUO "Make Use Of" has grown into one of the largest online technology publications on the web.
Make Use Of" target="_blank">


Bogart 9 Presents the Matt O'Neil Wheaton Central Denver Art Exhibit
Denver artist Matt O'Neil sets himself apart from the crowd by inviting his friends from High School to his Denver Studio.

The Clash 1980 album Sandinista
This one goes way back.

....... Bungle in the Jungle......
of course
JBTV Chicago
Christian White Editor and Director

Howie Samuelson Production House in Glencoe, Illinois. Owner and legendary activist Howie Samuelson founded the company to produce his ’70s Ch. 26 series “Underground News.” Mark Tulloss has been Production House managing producer since 1988. Chicago Tribune article on Howie Samuelson

90's Indie film Raging Hormones produced by Canvas Films, Fort Lauderdale.

ZPZ ticket

History of radio station WXRT Chicago
In the 1960's and early 70's for some reason all songs on the radio had to be under 3 minutes, and they HAD to have vocals. No instrumentals allowed. There were exceptions but few and far between. Did the industry think people were too dumb to comprehend anything beyond 3 minutes? And if it didn't have vocals it wouldn't keep their tiny brains attention?

I have a feeling that was not true. The real reason I think, it was not profitable to get people out of their comfort zone. Better to keep them where they are, and rake in the ratings. Let people "grow" themselves on their own dime, not on the station budget. Same story today, that's why we got the crap on TV and radio.

In the 1960's I was listening to Chicago AM Radio, WLS had Clark Weber, Dick Biondi. Larry LuJack had CHICKEN MAN and THE TOOTH FAIRY yyhahh those were great. Larry LuJack had his sidekick "Lil Tommy" they did ANIMAL STORIES. There was no FM Radio! Progressive Rock FM. It wasn't invented yet, even though there was all that cool music in Record Stores where the albums were only $3 dollars!
WXRT FM rock radio was not here yet.

WXRT Radio started in 1972 and only came on at night it was Spanish Programming all day until 9pm. I had to sneak up at night with the Headphones (on that Grundig Stereo system) and secretly listen to Jimi Hendrix All Along The Watchtower and King Crimson. My parents would see me passed out late and yell at me to get to bed. It was so exciting to hear that then because the radio would not play it. Some weird songs are still stuck in my head like Manfred Mann Father of Day Father of Night.
EVentually WXRT came on at 6pm then it broke thru to 24 hour programming. Terri Hemmert is the only original WXRT DJ she is still there today.

By 1970 little radio stations sprung up through the cracks in the sidewalks like little weeds struggling for the light of day. WXRT Chicago was one of them. They began in 1972 restricted to nights only, Spanish during the day.
They daringly took BIG chances by playing the uncut full version of "Frankenstein" by Edgar Winter Group and "Hocus Pocus" by Focus. Classic rock stations still today cut those songs short. What a joke. I don't know who to blame for the lunacy of 3 minute songs. Radio stations are a Business, I guess they have to pay the rent. Anyhow we have the internet now days so who cares. We are finally free at last. Radio went down first, then the record industry collapsed. Now its all swallowed up into one mass. Hopefully the internet will not get taken over by toll booths and roadblocks for awhile yet.

ALt Rockers "The Posies" were just on the radio the other day (back in 2009) saying how they STILL owe the record company from 10 years prior. When they signed to a major label.
The record company doesn't tell you that you're going in deep debt like a slave. It's supposed to be up to you and your Manager to notice that all kinds of garbage is being charged to YOUR accounts while you are out on stage thinking your Rock Gods. That's show business. If you don't watch out you'll end up chock full of leeches that eventually suck all your blood out. It's bad enough the system sucks you dry, VH1 Behind The Music shows your own Manager is more likely to be doing you in as well.

How come the radio would not play Black Sabbath? Ozzie Osbourne and the boys laughed all the way to the bank.

DJs from THE FOX radio station go to WXRT. WJKL was "The Fox" radio station in Elgin Illinois. "The FOX radio".. Fox River Valley. Hardly a Valley, more like a steep driveway. Chicago's WXRT's Tom Marker landed a job at WJKL where he worked from 1975 to 1980. Soon after Norm Winer became ‘XRT’s program director in 1979. Tom Marker was one of his first hires.

CHICAGO AM RADIO. On May 2, 1960, WLS transformed into a top 40 radio station for the first time under the programming of Sam Holman. Early jocks of this emerging format at WLS were Clark Weber, Bob Hale, Gene Taylor, Mort Crowley, Jim Dunbar, Dick Biondi, Bernie Allen and Dex Card. Two WLS jocks, Ron Riley and Art Roberts each interviewed the Beatles. Clark Weber became morning host in 1963, two years after joining the station. He was Program Director from 1966 until 1968 when John Rook arrived. Weber then moved to WCFL for a few years and then did a series of other Chicago radio gigs for many years.

WLS still aired several news programs during the early sixties to meet FCC requirements. WLS rose to the top three during this period along with WGN and WIND. Dick Biondi did nights for three years then ended up at KRLA in Los Angeles but later returned to Chicago at WCFL.

In 1965 WCFL switched from labor news to top 40 as "Super CFL," bringing competiton to WLS, which billed itself as "Channel 89" and then "The Big 89." WLS emerged as the victor by 1967 under the direction of Station Manager Gene Taylor. A new jock line-up was brought in that included Larry Lujack in mornings, Chuck Buell, Jerry Kay and Kris Erik Stevens. Program Director John Rook tightened the station and by 1968 WLS was number one and won a "station of the year" award from The Gavin Report. Larry LuJack had "Chicken Man, Animal stories with Lil Tommy and The Tooth Fairy.

The only time Super CFL beat WLS in the top 40 battle was in the summer of 1973. It led to changes at WLS as Tommy Edwards advanced as PD and Fred Winston moved from afternoons to mornings. New talent was brought in that included Bob Sirott, Steve King and Yvonne Daniels. By the Fall WLS was back to number one. WCFL dropped the format in 1976 as WLS continued its dominance until the late seventies.

WLS-FM (94.7) was previously WENR FM. It became WLS-FM in 1965 ?? playing "beautiful music" and sports programming????? In 1968 it began simulcasting the WLS-AM morning shows Clark Weber (6a-8a) and Don McNeill's Breakfast Club (8a-9a). In September 1969 ABC decided to change the FM's format to progressive rock after an experimental show called "Spoke" tested well. WLS-FM became WDAI in 1971 while remaining progressive. Steve Dahl started solo around 1977, he later partnered with Gary Mier.

In 1978 the format completely switched to disco. Steve Dahl was let go so he went across town to WLUP with partner Garry Meier, having great success. Meanwhile, the disco trend only lasted a few years and by 1980 WDAI-FM had burned out, so it switched format to oldies in 1980 briefly as WRCK then as WLS-FM again, which began simulcasting the AM's evening show. In 1986 WLS-FM became WYTZ (Z-95) as a top 40 competitor of B96 (WBBM 96.3). The call letters shifted back to WLS-FM again in 1992 and became a full-time simulcast of the AM, which had moved completely to a talk format in 1989. From 1995 to 1997 it was country station WKXK (Kicks Country), up against rival WUSN. Then it changed again in 1997 to classic rock as CD 94.7 under the Programming of Bill Gamble, who had success leading Q101 as an alternative station. In 2000 CD 94.7 became The Zone," moving more toward alternative music.

WXRT (93.1) Norm Winer had previously programmed WBCN in Boston and did mornings at KSAN in San Francisco before arriving as head of programming for WXRT. In 1991 ownership changed hands from Daniel Lee to Diamond Broadcasting. In 1995 the station was acquired by CBS Radio, which later merged with Infinity Broadcasting. In the nineties, when the alternative format had its highest ratings, Q101 (WKQX) was one of the top alternative stations in the midwest. Throughout the eighties it was a top 40 station owned by NBC, who sold it to Emmis in 1988. The station kept the call letters but flipped to alternative in 1992 under the programming of Bill Gamble, who jumped across town five years later.

Chicago's top morning show from the mid-nineties through early 2000s was Mancow Muller. He had come from top 40 station Z95 in San Francisco, in which he had made national news by getting arrested for holding up Bay Bridge traffic - as he got a haircut. It was a stunt that lampooned an incident involving President Clinton. Muller first came to Chicago in July 1994 at rock station WRCX. The show was called "Mancow's Morning Madhouse." The show expanded to national syndication in 1997. The following year Mancow moved his morning show to Q101. In 2001 Mancow's show came under intense scrutiny by the FCC, resulting in several fines concerning the show's content.

WLS-AM's flip to talk radio in 1989 was a symptom of the fact that by the eighties, music fans had moved to FM. Other AM talk stations at the time included WLUP (1000), WVON (1450) and WJJD (1160). WIND (560) had also done talk before being sold and going Spanish. It's interesting to note that even though music fans primarily moved to FM in the eighties, the top station in town at the end of the decade was adult contemporary station WGN-AM (720), owned by Tribune. WBBM-AM (780) also soared to the top three by the late eighties as a news station. Although its sister FM, B96, was the leader in contemporary hits, WGCI (107.5) and WVAZ (102.7) ranked higher in the ratings with their urban formats. Evergreen's WLUP (97.9) also did well as a rock station. Then it sold to Bonneville, in which it failed as an adult contemporary station but returned to rock in July 1997.

WXRT Radio Current Programming Personnel:
Norm Winer (Vice President Adult Rock Programming) John Farneda (Operations Manager/Music Director) Marty Lennartz (DJ/Creative Assistant to Programming/Host of the Big Beat/Going to the Show with A Regular Guy) Mike Pentz (Production Director) Lin Brehmer (Morning show host) Mary Dixon (News anchor) Marc Alghini (morning show producer/DJ) Terri Hemmert (DJ/Host of Breakfast with the Beatles) Frank E. Lee (DJ) Jason Thomas (DJ) Tom Marker (DJ/Host of Blues Breakers) Wendy Rice (DJ/Host of Saturday Morning Flashback) Richard Milne (DJ/Host of Local Anesthetic) Barry Winograd (Host of Jazz Transfusion) Leslie Witt (DJ) Johnny Mars (DJ) Ken Sumka (DJ) Doug Levy (DJ) Bill Artlip (DJ). Norm Winer, who worked at pioneering progressive rock radio stations WBCN in Boston and KSAN in San Francisco , has been the XRT Program Director for over 25 years

Special Effects studio "Boss Films"
Richard Edlund
Special Effects Studio 
Boss Films Corp

Director Martin Weisz did the X-Files video "One" classic Three Dog Knight song by the band Filter. I worked on that video!
The X-Files director, "Chris Carter"

The Cut Hut, Brentwood. The later great producer Shursen and director Joseph Kahn did Brandy's video for 1998's platinum selling hit "The Boy Is Mine" with Monica. Brandy was nominated for 2 MTV Video Music Awards with Monica for Best R&B Video. I rotoscoped Brandy in that video oh yes i did.

In the 90's Post Logic Studios in Hollywood had the computer system "Inferno" by famous Montreal VFX company Discreet Logic which is now part of AutoDesk.
Digital artist Chris Carter used that Inferno to do film restoration for the BBC Films contract to Warner Brothers DVD restoration at Post Logic Studios.
The film restorations that I worked on are  "Rebel Without A Cause" starring James Dean. "My Fair Lady." Audio Video Revolution calls this restoration, "a gorgeous DVD, crystal clear in both image and sound."  I worked on was the John Ford classic Mister Roberts. The last Warner Brothers DVD release, I worked frame by frame through all Humphrey Bogarts cigarette smoke in "Casablanca." It's been called the second-best American film ever made. BBC Reviewer Almar Haflidason said-

The Casablanca classic restoration and transfer onto DVD of this film is superb and it brings an essentially great drama right up to date on a technical level.

Holy Cow remember these Cards? I used to Live for these WXRT Featured Artist cards. I remember getting them often at Flipside records on Finley Road in Lombard. Flipside had the the three Genesis records "Foxtrot, Nursery Cryme and Tresspass" for $3.95 each. That was the going rate for albums in the 1970's.
This WXRT card is Aug. 1979

WXRT Featured Artist Card 1979

THESE Alligators are friends of the Family They live at Billie's Swamp Safari Camp. They are employed as Enertainers..

Big Aligators

WLS/WLUP Program Manager John Gehron says Steve Dahl invented "Reality Radio." Howard Stern copied Steve Dahl. Howard would never admit it. Before "shock jock" Howard's SELF REFORMATION he was always a jackass about how he invented everything and he was king blah blah BS,. Howard was so mean and full of shit in those days. He admits this as well. He's changed his evil ways and now he's very civilized. His Satellite show is actually a respected show.


Rick: Those WLS years were a turbulent time, despite the great success. The early to mid-80s Steve & Garry must have been a challenge for you. They were calling you “Scumby” on the air, reading your memos, writing songs about you. How do you look back on that time now?

John Gehron: I think we both were learning something from each other at the time. They were really pushing the limits, pushing the envelope. Really, they invented reality radio as we know it today. Meanwhile, I was working for a very conservative company that didn’t quite understand what they were doing, so we had a split in the building. (Photo: John at his WLS desk) There was one group that still believed in the old way of doing things, and one group that embraced this new way of thinking. It came to a head in the end when I wasn’t allowed to rehire them.

Rick: Just speaking as a listener in those days, I think part of the appeal of that show at that time was hearing someone rip their boss like that. It’s unfortunate that it was you, especially now that I know how highly everyone else thinks of you, but honestly, all of us wished that we could talk to our bosses the way those guys talked to you. There was something immensely cathartic about it. I remember one time tuning in and Steve was reading a memo that started with this sentence: “DO NOT READ THIS MEMO ON THE AIR.” That was jaw-dropping.

John Gehron: Oh no question, from a listener point of view it was clearly great radio. There’s no doubt that some of that was for show, but very much of it was real. That was what their show was about. Reality. They were really hard on us, but they were also really hard on themselves when they didn’t feel they were living up to their own ideals.

Rick: Do you still have a good relationship with those guys?

John Gehron: I would say so. I think I have a good relationship with both of them. I see Garry pretty often, and I really should get in touch with Steve. We both have a lot more time on our hands these days.

Rick: You’ve worked with virtually all of the major air talent in Chicago over the past 30 years. Tell us a few things that may surprise us about what these guys (and gals) are really like to deal with off the air.

John Gehron: I always found the big stars had an intensity about them, and part of my job was getting out of their way. The good ones knew what they wanted to do, and the great ones had a vision, and I had to give them the freedom to realize it. I have a tremendous amount of respect for talent—for their creativity. I know how hard it is to do what they do, to walk in and create something like that, because I can’t do it.

Rick: Do you think most program directors think that way?

John Gehron: The good ones do. Some programmers enjoy the idea of hearing their format executed exactly the way they envision it or draw it up. I never felt that way. If I could have executed it perfectly, I would have done it myself.


Whenever the birth of House Music is discussed, there is always one name which crops up repeatedly and which is credited with being the single most influential record label in House Music history ................. That name is
DJ International.

Founded by musician Rocky Jones, DJ International records was the right label in the right place at the right time. Chicago in 1985 was a city which was moving to its own particular beat and that beat was House Music. The key movers and shakers in the clubs were Frankie Knuckles at The Warehouse and Ron Hardy at the Music Box, who were responsible for influencing a whole new generation of Chicago-based artists who were experimenting with the unique rhythms they were hearing at these two Chicago clubs.

Before long a steady stream of new artists began to emerge from Chicago club land and inevitably they beat a path to the hottest new label with the coolest name in town, DJ International. The list is like a who's-who of House Music and includes Steve "Silk" Hurley, Chip E, Fingers Inc, Tyree, Farley "Jackmaster" Funk, Kenny "Jammin" Jason, Bam Bam, Sterling Void, Joe Smooth, Adonis, Fast Eddie and veteran Frankie Knuckles amongst many other names like "Nick The White Knight"one of the first white boy rappers.

The impact which DJ International had upon the spread of House Music internationally cannot be understated. They scored a No.1 UK Pop hit with Steve "Silk" Hurley's "Jack Your Body? and a top 10 UK smash with Farley "Jackmaster" Funk's "Love Can't Turn Around" as well as being the first label to take their artists to the UK and Europe thus putting House Music on the global map. Following over 200 releases across no less than 4 different labels within the group, DJ International ruled the early era of House and it's legacy survives to this day with virtually all of the releases now commanding huge prices on the 12" collectors circuit and it's ideas being routinely sampled and copied by today's new producers and artists. DJ International has always remained privately owned by Rocky Jones and he is proud to announce that the label will be promoting it's first new record on DJ International since the early 1990's.
Written by- Ian Dewhearst

Who is Karl Pilkington? A crazy man, or is it just an act? It's no act. He is weird. An interviewer for The Daily Telegraph concluded that Pilkington's persona is genuine. 

Karl Pilkington gained prominence as the producer of Ricky Gervais and Stephen Merchant's radio programme on Xfm. He appeared on The Ricky Gervais Show, presented the Sky travel comedy series An Idiot Abroad and made his full acting debut (following a cameo appearance in the final episode of Extras) on Gervais's 2012 comedy–drama series Derek. Pilkington is a co-founder, along with Gervais and Merchant, of RiSK Productions, a television production company. Pilkington also starred in the Sky 1 travel documentary comedy series The Moaning of Life (2013–2015). In 2018, Pilkington starred in a new scripted comedy series, Sick of It.

Pilkington's presence on The Ricky Gervais Show podcasts significantly increased his fame. He has often been mentioned in interviews given by Gervais, and is often the victim of Gervais' practical jokes. After Pilkington said "I could eat a knob at night" (rather than for breakfast) on the podcast (in relation to I'm a Celebrity contestants eating a kangaroo penis), Gervais encouraged his listeners to sample the sound bite and mix it into dance music. The phrase spawned several dance music mixes, T-shirts and other merchandise. Many of Pilkington's quotes have since gained publicity, particularly on the Internet. Reuters described Pilkington as a "phenomenon" who had made "Internet history."

On 23 November 2010, while appearing live on Richard Bacon's Radio 5 Live afternoon show, Gervais surprised Pilkington with an on-air phone call. This led to a conversation in which Pilkington, who claimed to have been interrupted while grouting his kitchen, claimed that he had not yet been paid for his work on An Idiot Abroad and concluded the interview with an off-the-cuff link into the hourly news.

Pilkington has worked independently of Gervais and Merchant on several projects. He appeared as a guest on the shows Flipside TV and The Culture Show, and appeared in several short films as part of the Channel 4 project 3 Minute Wonders.

Merchant and Gervais have repeatedly denied claims that Pilkington's persona is their creation. In an on-air response to similar claims made by Chris Campling during a broadcast on Xfm, Merchant stated that he would be "ashamed" if the radio show had been scripted, and added that "I would not have squandered a character that good on this poxy radio station." Gervais concurred, pointing out that writing a single series' worth of six half-hour episodes of shows such as The Office and Extras consumed as long as a full year of their time. An interviewer for The Daily Telegraph concluded that Pilkington's persona is genuine.

Chicago Radio WLS with Larry Lujack Show

Larry Lujack of WLS in Chicago was the first to air the series. Dick Orkin, an award-winning voice actor and commercial radio producer, created the Chickenman series in the late 60's while working at WCFL in Chicago. The series, with the famous catch phrase, "He's everywhere! He's everywhere!" spoofed comic book heroes and was loosely based on two original TV series of the 60's - Batman and Get Smart.

In the early 70's, as a follow-up to his Famous Chickenman Radio program, Dick Orkin created The Secret Adventures of the Tooth Fairy, a 325-episode, 2 1/2 minute, radio serial. Larry Lujack of WLS in Chicago was the first to air the series.

Both Chickenman and Tooth Fairy have aired in more than 3,000 cities across the U.S., Canada, Australia, and Worldwide via the Armed Forces Radio, making them the longest running radio serial of all time. Chickenman continues in broadcast syndication today via the Chicago Radio Syndicate, Inc. in the U.S. and by Grace Gibson Productions in Australia.

"Distributing the Chickenman and Tooth Fairy radio programs is a great example of how we strive to diversify our catalogue with new content outside of the music realm," says Michele Ito, VP of Labels at BFM Digital.

"New and old fans alike email us all the time and ask how they can get copies of the Chickenman and Tooth Fairy programs for themselves. And in this digital age, BFM is the perfect vehicle by which we can honor those requests", says President of Radio Ranch, Sandy Orkin. " These programs have always appealed to listeners of all ages."

The first episodes of Chickenman and Tooth Fairy are now available Worldwide for download at the Radio Ranch-


If you’re a stickler for reality you can dive into the 2006 two volume set by professor Margaret A. Boden called, “Mind as Machine.” It’s billed as the most comprehensive account of the history of the cognitive sciences yet to appear. While you’re looking for that I’ll give the short answer. Cognitive science is the study of the mind, intelligence, and learning. This would include psychology, philosophy, linguistics, and artificial intelligence. I think the really short answer is, “How you talk to yourself.” That covers what you think you’re doing, which leads to how you see the world. It turns out everybody lives in their own little custom version of reality. Obviously there is not enough overlap between our little reality bubbles or there would be peace on earth and harmony amongst everyone. This begs the question, “Who owns the latest definition of reality”? Whoever was last in charge, basically. Okay let’s backup a little bit. Chicago 1978. 

Scholars interested in the history of cognitive science agree some sort of cognitive ‘revolution’ took place during the 1950s. It was a eureka moment coinciding with the invention of computers, artificial intelligence and linguistics. The eureka moment was rejecting behaviorism as the explanation for why we do the nasty things we do. The theory was that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience. If you didn't see it, hear it, or read it, then it wasn't real. What happen in 1968  basically amounts to a radical departure from BF Skinner behaviorist psychology and its general rejection of mental states as explanatory of behavior.

Why is linguistics involved? Noam Chomsky told me some stuff about universal language that we all speak, culture and religion is an attempt to verbalize this inner language.

Wait a minute wasn't all this brought up by Socrates, Aristotle, Plato and friends back in ancient Greece? Yes. Back then this was philosophy. It was not science. Today it is science. The history of the study of the mind has been the province of philosophy and or behaviorism until very recently. The 1950's. At that time the 1950's to 1970's people like Noam Chomsky, Jiddu Krishnamurti, Alan Watts, Bruce Lee, and many others were part of this cognitive revolution where the study of the mind began to switch from philosophy over to science.  

The cognitive revolution broke the 10,000 year grip of the "narrative" philosophy and mystery "facts" that held 95% of the population. Today it's less than 50% that are still stuck in the past. For 10,000 years the theory was that knowledge comes only or primarily, from sensory experience. If you didn't see it, hear it, or read it, then it wasn't real. Philosophy became so academic so that didn't help out. Academics in general are a very recent arrival. Pretty much nobody went to college before 1940, the year Bruce Lee was born. He went to college and studied philosophy. In 1975 only 67% of the workforce had a high school diploma. Alan Watts told me about most of this stuff. Bruce Lee was a big fan of Alan Watts. Jeet Kune Do was to be a template people could use to figure this stuff out. It was a work in progress that for the most part was barely just getting started. To use it as it was in 1973 for 2021 takes some special effort. That's the goal of the Decoding Bruce Lee Project.  

The Planet Has Links


to the 563rd Combat Engineer Battalion. If you were in Germany stationed in Stuttgart at Ludendorf Kaserne Kornwesthiem in 1979 - 1982. e-mail so we can contact you about the reunion party we're putting together for everyone who served in that period. Some of the people who we're looking for, (who's "we" anyway?)
Visit the 563rd EN BN page here.


This Is What It Sounds Like When The Internet Cries
by Chris Willman & Lyndsey Parker

So this week, while all the blogosphere was abuzz about George Michael's SEVENTH car crash, LeAnn Rimes' controversial canoodling pics with boyfriend Eddie Cibrian, Crystal Bowersox's new teeth, Liz Phair's credibility-killing new musical direction, and the Grammys' revised eligibility rules, the World Wide Web itself was under attack by Prince, aka The Artist Formerly Known As The Internet's Biggest Supporter. Yes, online readers, according to His Purple Majesty's new royal decree, the Internet is kaput. Over. Finished. You may as well turn off this website and go back to your abacus now.

"The Internet's completely over," Prince declared to England's Daily Mirror, sounding like he's ready to party not quite like it's 1999, but more like '79. "I don't see why I should give my new music to iTunes or anyone else [digitally]. They won't pay me an advance for it, and then they get angry when they can't get it....All these computers and digital gadgets are no good. They just fill your head with numbers and that can't be good for you."

Prince's rejection of all thing Interweb came as quite a shock, considering that the man was once seemingly completely besotted with the digital revolution. For a man who very publicly battled with his record label, Warner Bros., because he wanted to release more product than Warner was willing to, a guy with hundreds of unreleased songs under his purple belt, it seemed like the perfect means to get all that music to the fans, eliminating the middleman.  
So after Prince escaped from the clutches of Warner Bros. in the mid-'90s, he released a series of increasingly little-heard albums on his own label, NPG Records--some of which were only available through (you guessed it) the Internet. And even as recently as March 2009, Prince was introducing a heavily promoted new subscription website,; for an annual membership of $77, fans would theoretically not only get the digital version of the three-CD set he was releasing through Target at that time, but loads of new and unreleased material unavailable anywhere else. But as the Wall Street Journal reported this past April, the website turned out to be a bust, at least for the disgruntled followers who never got the stream of rarities and bonuses they were expecting. And just as the mercurial Prince put the kibosh on his New Power Generation Music Club subscription site back in 2006, early this year he gave the order for the site to be shut down as well.

And now it seems like Prince wants ALL sites to be shut down--including iTunes!

While Forbes writer Quentin Hardysurprisingly sided with Prince (in an article self-explanatorily titled "Prince Is Right. The Internet Is Over."--which, ironically, was widely read on THE FORBES.COM WEBSITE), most musicians weren't so quick to turn their backs on the entire Interweb. Even soft-jazz saxophonist Kenny G--a man no oneever thought would seem cooler than Prince--spoke out against Prince's remarks, jokingly telling the Associated Press: "If the Internet is dead then I must be dead too, 'cause I use it all the time. Maybe I've got a sixth sense, and I only see dead people." The very-much-alive Mr. G then expressed every intention to continue distributing and promoting his new album, Heart & Soul, digitally. Additionally, many other, hipper artists who've embraced online distribution--Radiohead, Trent Reznor, Beck, and Lil' Wayne and countless other mixtape-popularized rappers--hardly jumped to Prince's defense, and not even Metallica's Lars Ulrich, once Napster's most angry opponent, spoke up.

Maybe all this is a sign o' the times, so to speak. After all, it's understandable in this post-Napster age that artists might no longer be in favor of a completely open Internet, since many industry pundits argue that it is illegal file-sharing and even legal free downloads and streams that are responsible for their music biz's current slump. Still, it seems a little silly to expect people to abandon their "digital gadgets" and the online distribution methods (iTunes, Rhapsody) via which the majority of avid music fans play and receive their music nowadays. But, IF Prince is right, then what is going to replace the Internet?

Will Prince will release his next album on 8-track, wax cylinder, or in the "smoke signal" format long favored by traditionalists? No, in all seriousness, the distribution model Prince is now favoring his music away free with newspapers.

Yes, Prince's latest CD, 20Ten, will be included with July 10 copies of the Daily Mirror in the U.K. and Daily Record in Ireland, as well as other print publications in Belgium and Germany. For someone making the argument that music is undervalued, Prince has a funny way of proving its integrity when he gives CDs away like shampoo samples. (Maybe, somewhere along the way, he confused his Parade album with the Parade magazine included in many Sunday papers.)

There's no plan yet to distribute 20Ten in America, but Prince is reportedly in talks with his old label, Warner Bros. (yep, the aforementioned "slave"-drivers who allegedly held him so captive that he was forced to carve S.O.S. messages into his sideburns) for a future U.S. release. Apparently Prince is so convinced that the Internet is over, he's not the least bit concerned about hundreds of thousands of Europeans, who will receive free copies of 20Ten this weekend, leaking the album online for all interested Americans to hear.

And, highly ironically, right now three preview samples from Prince's new CD are available for streaming on...the Daily Mirror's website. So maybe the web isn't obsole te after all. But just in case, check the songs out by clicking here...quick, before the Internet self-destructs

Half Man Half Biscuit are an English rock band, formed in 1984 in Birkenhead, Merseyside. Known for their satirical, sardonic, and sometimes surreal songs, the band comprises lead singer and guitarist Nigel Blackwell, bassist and singer Neil Crossley, drummer Carl Henry, and guitarist Karl Benson.

Half Man Half Biscuit were formed by two friends from Birkenhead, Neil Crossley and singer, guitarist and songwriter Nigel Blackwell who was (in his own words) at the time "still robbing cars and playing football like normal people do". In 1979, Blackwell was editing a football fanzine (Left For Wakeley Gage); he met Crossley when he went to see the latter's band play. In 1984, when Half Man Half Biscuit were formed, Crossley moved to bass and the two were joined by Nigel's brother Simon Blackwell (lead guitar) and his friend Paul Wright (drums), both previously with a group called Attempted Moustache. The quartet started to rehearse in the Liverpool-based Vulcan Studios, where they soon turned a five-piece, with David Lloyd now on keyboards.

Their debut album, 1985's Back in the DHSS, topped the UK Indie Chart and reached number 60 in the UK Album Chart. Its title was a play on The Beatles' "Back in the U.S.S.R." and also a reference to the DHSS, the government department that dealt with the unemployed, Nigel Blackwell having been on unemployment benefits since 1979. The band's first single, "The Trumpton Riots", topped the British independent chart in 1986, and they went on to perform at Glastonbury Festival. The second single, "Dickie Davies Eyes", also topped the indie chart. In late 1986, the band split up, giving as reason "musical similarities". They followed with album Back Again in the DHSS, containing previously issued, unreleased and live tracks.

The band reformed in 1990, with a performance at the Reading Festival following, and a new single, "Let's Not" issued before the year was out, followed in 1991 by a collaboration with Margi Clarke on a version of Edith Piaf's "No Regrets". The third album was McIntyre, Treadmore And Davitt, released in October 1991. By the time This Leaden Pall was released in 1993, Wright and Lloyd had left the band, with Carl Alty joining on drums. Simon Blackwell left the following year, with Ian S Jackson joining. Jackson (who later joined Rooney) and Alty (who joined Joyrider) departed in 1996, to be replaced by Ken Hancock (guitar) and Carl Henry (drums). Since reforming, the band have produced an album every two or three years.

Half Man Half Biscuit were championed by DJ John Peel, for whom they recorded twelve sessions, and it was on his programme in 1990 that the band announced their return.
Half Man Half Biscuit turned down the chance to appear on The Tube, as Tranmere Rovers were playing that night, even though Channel Four offered to fly them by helicopter to the game. Blackwell has been a fan of the team since "sometime after the Coventry City cup win in 1968".

The band's styles parody popular genres, while their lyrics allude to UK popular culture and geography. Blackwell often refers to Wirral and to North Wales, often in the context of hillwalking in Snowdonia; he also appears fond of Shropshire, East Anglia, The West Country, and Oxfordshire. British or international football, Sylvia Plath, Thomas Hardy, and the Bible are referenced in his lyrics. As the 1990s progressed, Blackwell's love of blues and folk became more apparent. Bassist Crossley's tastes include late 1970s and early 1980s new wave or post-punk bands, and during live sets HMHB have performed covers of acts as diverse as Joy Division, Magazine, Tim Buckley, The Beach Boys, Tommy James and the Shondells and Ike and Tina Turner.

In 2001, Blackwell provided the voiceover for a BP television advert.

In April 2010, the band's song "Joy Division Oven Gloves" from their 2005 album Achtung Bono was the subject of a Facebook campaign to get it to No. 6 on the chart for 12 April 2010, in response to the rumoured closure of the indie-supporting radio station BBC 6 Music. The song reached No. 56 on 11 April 2010: this was their first UK Singles Chart appearance. It also reached No. 3 in the Official Independent Singles chart the same week, and was No. 1 in the HMV UK Digital Downloads Top 40 Tracks on 16 April, knocking Ultravox's song "Vienna" off the top spot – itself part of a separate Facebook campaign the previous week. Victoria Loop has played live several times with the band on tenor horn, cornet and bass guitar. She is affectionately known as 'The 5th Biscuit'.

Ken Hancock played his last gig with the band in summer 2017, and was replaced at the end of the year by Karl Benson.
Check to see if your Family members emails are on any of those Lists of names from data breaches Target, Home Depot, Yahoo, etc.
HAVE I BEEN PWNED? (Pawned spelled without the A) is a service that collects hundreds of database dumps containing information about billions of leaked and stolen accounts.

Users can search for their own information to see if your email address appears then you know not to use any parts of that Password ever again. The site has been widely touted as a valuable resource for Internet users wishing to protect their own security and privacy. "Have I Been Pwned?" was created by security expert Troy Hunt on 4 December 2013.

I Been Pawned

Here is the CFPB (Consumer Financial Protection Bureau), a U.S. government agency that makes sure banks, lenders, and other financial companies treat you fairly. Definitely bookmark the CFPB page~


Dean Lyon's Computer Graphic's History
As told to me in Hollywood, by Dean himself.

After graduating from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1971 with a degree in meteorology, Terry Kelly took a job with Madison, Wisconsin, television station Channel 27 calculating weather predictions. Over the next two years he introduced a number of new techniques to the industry, including using magnets to represent high and low points, color markers on a whiteboard for graphics, and later hand-photographing satellite cloud imagery with a Bolex camera to produce the first cloud-movement animations.
Kelly and several of his colleagues also produced weather forecasting software. In 1974 he was promoted to chief meteorologist at Channel 27, and at the same time started Weather Central to sell and operate their software for smaller organizations such as ski resorts and local highway departments.
........................................................................................................................................................ .

ColorGraphics was formed in 1979 as a partnership between Terry Kelly and Richard Daly. Kelly and Daly had both worked in theUniversity of Wisconsin's Space Science and Engineering department, developers of the McIDAS weather display system. McIDAS used downloaded satellite cloud cover images and superimposed them on locally generated maps. Designed for the National Weather Service, McIDAS was a high-end system well beyond the budget of a television station.
Kelly's idea was to adapt the McIdas concept for lower cost home computer systems that were appearing in the late 1970s. Their first system, "LiveLine", was based on the Apple II. Its graphics system could not be genlocked, so a TV camera had to be pointed at the screen to send the video into the production systems. This initial system was soon replaced by a similar one running on Cromemco computers using a modified version of their Dazzler color-graphics card. In spite of its simplicity and low resolution, the fast production and "high tech" look caught on, and by the mid-1980s the system was almost universal, replacing bluescreen systems on cardboard maps that had previously been used. The company notes that 70% of the top 50 TV markets were using the system by 1982.
In 1982 the company was purchased by Dynatech, an expanding electronics company. The Colorgraphics system started being used by the Post production Industry. Before it could make real headway Dynatech purchased Cromemco and rolled the two companies together and divested all of its media properties in the early 1990s. Kelly and Daly purchased the rights back from Dynatech in 1994, operating under the Weather Central name. In 1995 they introduced the new "GENESIS" platform on Silicon Graphics computers, which later moved onto Hewlett-Packard workstations.


Altair 8800 computer
Winged edge polyhedra representation
Bill Gates starts Microsoft
JPL Graphics Lab developed
Anima animation system developed at CGRG at Ohio State


Jim Blinn develops reflectance and environment mapping
Ukrainian Pysanka Egg erected in Vegraville, Canada by Ron Resch to commemorate the RCMP
Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak start Apple computer.


Apple Computer incorporated
Apple II released
Computer Graphics World begins publication
Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences introduces Visual Effects category for Oscars
Larry Cuba produces Death Star simulation for Star Wars using Grass at UICC developed by Tom DeFanti at Ohio State


Leroy Nieman uses Ampex paint system to draw football players in Super Bowl XII
James Blinn produces the first of a series of animations titled The Mechanical Universe
Bump mapping introduced


National Computer Graphics Association organized
IBM 3279 color terminal
Atari 8-bit computers introduced
Disney produces The Black Hole using CGI for the opening


Apollo Computer founded
Turner Whitted of Bell Labs publishes ray tracing paper
First NCGA conference - Arlington, Virginia - Steven Levine, President
IBM licenses DOS from Microsoft
Aurora Systems founded by Richard Shoup
Disney uses computer graphics for the movie Tron
MIT Media Lab founded by Nicholas Negroponte
Hanna-Barbera, largest producer of animation in the U.S.,begins implementation of computer automation of animation process
Quantel introduces Paintbox
Chris Carter produces his first multi-track audio recordings using two cassette decks and a 4-track TEAC reel to reel.


Sony Betacam
Tom DeFanti expands GRASS to Bally Z-50 machine
IBM introduces the first IBM PC
Penguin Software (now Polarware) introduces the Complete Graphics System
Looker includes the virtual human character Cindy


The Last Starfighter
Skeleton Animation System developed at CGRG at Ohio State
ACM begins publication of TOG
Tom Brighham develops morphing
Adobe founded by John Warnock
Atari develops the data glove.
AutoDesk founded; AutoCAD released


ILM computer graphics division develops "Genesis effect" for Star Trek II - The Wrath of Khan
Autodesk introduces AutoCAD the first PC-based CAD software
Chris Carter takes one of the first AutoCAD classes. At Joliet Junior College.


Robert Able & Associates produces the 1st computer generated 30 second commercial used for Super Bowl
Wavefront Technologies is the first commercially available 3D software package
14.5 minute computer generated IMAX film shown at SIGGRAPH 84
Universal Studios opens CG department
First Macintosh computer is sold; introduced with Clio award winning commercial 1984 during Super Bowl
Lucasfilms introduces motion blur effects
Chris Carter takes one of the first Adobe Illustrator 88 classes at College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL


Pixar Image Computer goes to market


Young Sherlock Holmes stained glass knight
2010 The Movie
The Great Mouse Detective was the first animated film to be aided by CG.
Pixar purchased from Lucasfilm by Steve Jobs
Microsoft goes public
Apple IIgs introduced
Luxo Jr. nominated for Oscar


GIF format
Willow popularizes morphing
VGA invented by IBM


PICT format
Apple sues Microsoft for copyright infringement for GUI
U.S. Patent awarded to Pixar for RenderMan
Who Framed Roger Rabbit mixes live action and animation
Disney and Pixar develop CAPS
PIXAR wins Academy award for Tin Toy


Bill Wildt of MotorSports UNLTD. introduces Chris Carter to Jerry Bryant of JBTV
PIXAR starts marketing RenderMan


Joe Kelley puts SuperSpots into Bankruptcy proceedings. Jerry, Mike, David buy the assets.
Microsoft ships Windows 3.0
U.S. Patent awarded to Pixar for point sampling
3D Studio


World Wide Web
Disney and PIXAR agree to create 3 films, including the first computer animated full-length film Toy Story
ILM produces Terminator 2
Jerry Bryant, Dave Gariano and Mike Harnett takeover SuperSpots assets and hire Chris Carter


Disney and Pixar get Academy Technical Achievement Award for CAPS production system
QuickTime introduced
University of Illinois debuts CAVE virtual reality technology at SIGGRAPH 92
Lawnmower Man
VIFX uses flock animation with Prism software to create large groups of animals


disk array and compression codecs allow for nonlinear editing and full motion video
Jurassic Park
Babylon 5 uses Amiga and Macintosh generated CGI
Myst released


SGI and Nintendo team up for Nintendo 64 product
Microsoft acquires Softimage - announces Windows 95
Doom hits game market
Reboot (CG cartoon) uses 3D characters
Facetracker used by SimmGraphics to animate facial expressions for Super Mario


Toy Story
DreamWorks SKG founded
Pixar goes public with 6.9M share offering
Sony Playstation introduced


Quake hits game market
Windows 95 ships


DVD technology unveiled
Jim Kajiya of Cal Tech gets Academy Award for development and application of CGI hair and fur
Dean Lyon is about to get Chris Carter a job at Richard Edlund's Boss Films, Hollywood CA. Then Boss Film closes its doors! Dean and Chris are now both out of a job.


Titanic becomes the largest grossing motion picture in US history
MPEG-4 standard announced
Geri's Game - awarded the Academy Award for Animated Short
Pixar awarded a Scientific and Technical Academy Award for the development of software that produces images used in motion pictures from 3D computer descriptions of shape and appearance


Star wars Episode One
Toy Story 2 produced by Pixar
Fantasia 2000 produced by Disney
Disney's DreamQuest and Feature Animation join to form The Secret Lab


Playstation 2
Microsoft X-Box prototype shown at SIGGRAPH 2000
Dinosaur produced by Disney


Windows XP
movies - Final Fantasy , Monsters Inc, Harry Potter, A.I., Lord of the Rings, Shrek, Jurassic Park III
Microsoft xBox and Nintendo Gamecube released
Bogart 9 installs the Adobe Master Collection HD CS3 Production Pro Suite
Dean Lyon starts working at DaVinci HQ


Dean Lyon's History of Computing and VRE Timeline
As told to me by Dean in a bar in Las Vegas

1450 Gutenburg press

1687 Principia Mathematica - Isaac Newton

1777 Charles Earl Stanhope invented the first logic machine.

1800 J. M. Jacquard used punched cards to control a weaving loom.

1804 Jacquard loom

1811 Luddites riot

1821 Michael Faraday discovered the principle of the electric motor.

1823 Charles Babbage developed the Difference Engine.

1824 Peter Roget described the persistence of vision.

1826 Photography (Niepce)

1831 Dr. Joseph Antoine Plateau and Dr. Simon Rittrer constructed a machine called a phenakitstoscope

1832 Charles Wheatstone invented the stereoscope.

1833 Charles Babbage proposed the Analytical Engine.

1834 Horner developed the zoetrope from Plateau's phenakistoscope.

1842 FAX (Alexander Bain)

1843 Morse's telegraph installed between Philadelphia and Washington

1854 George Boole published his method for solving problems in logic.

1860 Lord Kelvin used the ball and disk integrator for analog computing.

1864 Maxwell electromagnetic wave theory becomes basis for radio wave propogation

1872 Eadweard Muybridge started his photographic compilation of animals in motion

1873 James Clerk Maxwell published his "Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism".

1883 Thomas Edison discovered the thermionic effect.

1884 Nipkow (Germany) devises scanner for scanning and transmitting images

1885 CRT (Cathode Ray Tube)

1887 Edison patents motion picture camera

1888 Edison and Dickson record motion picture photos on a wax cylinder

1889 George Eastman began the manufacture of photographic film strips using a nitro-cellulose base.

1888 Berliner invents phonograph

1889 Thomas Edison announced his kinetoscope which projected a 50ft length of film in approximately 13 seconds.

1888 Oberlin Smith introduces basics of magnetic recording

1888 Heinrich Hertz discovered radio waves.

1889 Lon Bolle built a direct multiplication machine.

1890 Herman Hollerith designed an electric tabulating system for the USA census.

1891 Dickson uses Edison's kinetograph to record motion pictures

1896 Herman Hollerith formed the Tabulating Machine Company today's IBM.

1905 Fleming electron tube

1905 Einstein's theory of relativity

1910 Bertrand Russell and Albert North Whitehead published "Principia Mathematica".

1912 de Forest develops Audion vacuum tube amplifier

1923 Zworykin develops Iconoscope at Westinghouse

1924 John Logie Baird produced television objects in outline.

1926 John Logie Baird demonstrated the television of moving objects.

1926 1st teleconference - between Washington and New York

1927 Philo Farnsworth invents fully electronic TV (First all electronic TV is made by RCA in 1932)

1927 Motion picture film standardized at 24 fps

1929 BBC begins broadcasting

1931 1st stereo recordings

1936 Alan Turing showed that certain algorithms could not be solved.

1936 Konrad Zuse built a relay calculator.

1936 the Magnetophone is 1st true magnetic tape recorder

1937 Claude Shannon described an "Electric Adder to Base Two" in his master's thesis.

1937 George Stibitz built an electric adder to the base two at Bell Labs.

1937 Howard Aiken proposed the need for a new kind of computing machine.

1938 Valensi proposes color TV

1938 Thomas Watson (President of IBM) implemented Aiken's idea for a new type of computing machine at Harvard University.

1940 Link Aviation developed the first flight trainers.

1941 First U.S. regular TV broadcast

1941 1st TV commercial (for Bulova watches)

1943 The U.S. Army began planning the ENIAC computer.

1943 British Post Office engineers operated their Colussus computer to decode Germany's Enigma codes.

1944 The Harvard Computation Laboratory completed their automatic, general-purpose, digital computer.

1944 Gordon Brown at M.I.T. was asked to build a simulator for multi-engined aircraft.

1945 Konrad Zuse developed a simple programming language 'plan calculus'.

1945 John von Neumann began work on a fully automatic, digital, all-purpose computing machine.

1946 J. Presper Eckert and John W. Mauchly designed ENIAC at the Moore School.

1946 M.I.T's Project Whirlwind was used for real-time air traffic control and aircraft simulation.

1946 George Stibitz completed the first Model V relay calculator.

1947 Adele Goldstine and John von Neumann developed flow diagrams for describing programs.

1947 J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly's company built UNIVAC the first computer designed for commercial use.

1948 Adele Goldstine and John von Neumann developed a program to interpret other programs.

1948 William Shockley et al. invented the transistor at Bell Telephone Laboratories.

1948 F. C. Williams used CRTs as memory delay lines and created patterns of dots.

1948 cable TV is installed

1949 Maurice Wilkes built the EDSAC computer at Cambridge University.

1949 Williams tube (CRT storage tube)

1949 F. C. Williams and T. Kilburn built the MADM computer at Manchester University.

1950 Cybernetics and Society - Norbert Weiner (MIT)

1950 Ben Laposky uses oscilloscope to display waveforms which were photographed as artwork

1950 The Whirlwind computer at M.I.T. used a CRT for output.

1951 The ACE project

1951 Graphics display on vectorscope on Whirlwind computer

1953 NTSC broadcast code

1954 FCC authorizes color TV broadcast

1955 SAGE system at Lincoln Lab uses first light pen (Bert Sutherland)

1955 John von Neumann described 'self-reproducing automata'.

1956 Morton Heilig invented the Sensorama

1956 US Patent 3,059,519 - inventor: Stanton, CRT-based binocular "headgear".

1956 Lawrence Livermore National Labs connects graphics display to IBM 704; use film recorder for color images

1956 Ampex demonstrates the Ampex VR2000 videotape recorder (2" tape)

1957 M.L. Heilig patented a pair of head-mounted goggles fitted with two colour TV units.

1957 1st image-processed photo at National Bureau of Standards

1957 Digital Equipment Corporation founded

1958 The first monolithic integrated circuit was demonstrated.

1958 Numerical controlled digital drafting machines - MIT

1958 TX-1 computer at MIT uses graphics console

1958 CalComp 565 drum plotter

1958 John Whitney Sr. uses analog computer to make art

1959 First film recorder - General Dynamics Stromberg Carlson 4020

1960 The Boeing Corporation coined the term 'computer graphics'.

1960 William Fetter of Boeing coins the term "computer graphics" for his human factors cockpit drawings

1960 John Whitney Sr. founds Motion Graphics, Inc.

1960 DEC PDP-1 introduced

1961 Integrated circuits were used in commercial computers.

1961 John Whitney Sr., creates the intro to Alfred Hitchock's Vertigo using analog computer graphics devices

1961 Spacewars, 1st video game, developed by Steve Russell at MIT for the PDP-1

1962 W. Uttal, assigned to IBM, patented a glove for teaching touch typing.

1963 Ivan Sutherland submitted his doctoral thesis "SKETCHPAD: A Man-Machine Graphical Communication System".

1963 1st computer art competition, sponsored by Computers and Automation

1963 Mouse invented by Doug Englebart of SRI

1963 Coons' patches

1963 1st (?) computer generated film by Edward Zajac (Bell Labs)

1963 BEFLIX developed at Bell Labs by Ken Knowlton

1963 Charles Csuri makes his first computer generated artwork

1963 DAC-1, first commercial CAD system, developed in 1959 by IBM for General Motors is shown at JCC

1963 Lockheed Georgia starts graphics activity

1963 Michael Noll (Bell Labs) starts his Gaussian Quadratic series of artwork

1963 Roberts hidden line algorithm (MIT)

1964 Project MAC (MIT)

1964 IBM 2250 console introduced with IBM 360 computer

1964 Poem Field by Stan Vanderbeek and Ken Knowlton

1964 Itek Digigraphic Program (later Control Data graphics system)

1964 RAND tablet input device (also called Grafacon)

1964 compact cassette tape (Phillips)

1964 Electronic character generator

1965 Ivan Sutherland published "The Ultimate Display".

1965 1st computer art exhibition, at Technische Hochschule in Stuttgart

1965 1st U.S. computer art exhibition, at Howard Wise Gallery in New York

1965 Adage founded

1965 Bresenham Algorithm for plotting lines

1965 BBN Teleputer uses Tektronix CRT

1966 Tom Furness began work on display systems for pilots.

1966 Odyssey, home video game developed by Ralph Baer of Sanders Assoc, is 1st consumer CG product

1966 Group 1 FAX machines (using CCITT compression)

1966 Lincoln Wand developed

1966 Plasma Panel introduced

1966 Studies in Perception I by Ken Knowlton and Leon Harmon (Bell Labs)

1966 MAGI founded by Phil Mittleman

1966 Loutrel hidden line algorithm

1967 Fred Brooks et al. developed the force feedback GROPE system at UNC at Chapel Hill.

1967 Appel hidden line algorithm

1967 Sine Curve Man and Hummingbird created by Chuck Csuri

1967 Adage real time 3D line drawing system

1967 GE introduces first full color real time interactive flight simulator for NASA - Rod Rougelet

1967 Experiments in Art and Technology (E.A.T.) started in New York by artists Rauschenberg and Kluver

1967 MIT's Center for Advanced Visual Studies founded by Gyorgy Kepes

1967 1/2 inch open reel video tape recorder

1968 Ivan Sutherland published "A Head-Mounted Three Dimensional Display".

1968 DEC 338 intelligent graphics terminal

1968 Tektronix 4010

1968 University of Utah recruits Dave Evans to form a CG department in computer science

1968 Warnock algorithm

1968 Watkins algorithm

1968 Cybernetic Serendipity: The Computer and the Arts exhibition at London Institute of Contemporary Arts

1968 Csuri's Hummingbird purchased by Museum of Modern Art for permanent collection

1968 Permutations - John Whitney, Sr.

1968 Sutherland Head Mounted Display (Sword of Damocles), developed in 1966, shown (AFIPS Conference)

1968 Evans & Sutherland, Calma, Houston Instrument, Imlac founded

1968 LDS-1 from E&S introduces line clipping

1969 SCANIMATE commercialized - Lee Harrison

1969 Genesys anaimation system - Ron Baecker

1969 Computer Image Corporation founded

1969 Bell Labs builds first framebuffer (3 bits)

1969 1st use of CGI for commercials - MAGI for IBM

1969 Graphical User Interface (GUI) developed by Xerox (Alan Kay)

1969 SIGGRAPH formed (began as special interest committee in 1967 by Sam Matsa and Andy vanDam)

1969 ComputerVision, Applicon, Vector General founded

1969 ARPANET is born

1970 Sonic Pen 3-D input device

1971 Redifon Ltd. (UK) began manufacturing flight simulators with computer graphics displays.

1971 Henri Gouraud submitted his doctoral thesis "Computer Display of Curved Surfaces".

1971 Gouraud shading

1971 Ramtek founded

1971 MCS (Manufacturing and Consulting Services) founded by Patrick Hanratty, consedered the "father" of mechanical CAD/CAM

1971 Altair 8800 computer

1971 Robert Abel and Associates founded

1972 MAGI Synthevision started (Bo Gehring)

1972 CGRG founded at Ohio State

1972 Emmy awarded to Lee Harrison for SCANIMATE

1972 Alto computer introduced by Xerox PARC (Alan Kay)

1972 Megatek founded

1972 Utah hand (Catmull) and face (Parke) animations produced

1972 Computer Graphics and Image Processing journal begins publication

1972 8-bit frame buffer developed by Dick Shoup at Xerox PARC

1972 Sandin Image Processor - Dan Sandin, Univ. Illinois-Chicago Circle

1972 Atari formed (Nolan Bushnell)

1972 Newell, Newell and Sancha visible surface algorithm

1972 video game Pong developed for Atari

1972 Graphics Symbiosis System (GRASS) developed at Ohio State by Tom DeFanti

1973 Bui-Tuong Phong submitted his doctoral thesis "Illumination for Computer Generated Images".

1973 E&S begins marketing first commercial frame buffer

1973 Ethernet - Bob Metcalf (Harvard)

1973 Westworld - 1st film to use CGI - graphics produced at III

1973 Circle Graphics Habitat founded at Univ. Illinois Chicago (Tom DeFanti & Dan Sandin)

1973 first SIGGRAPH conference (Boulder)

1973 3/4 inch portapack replaces 16mm film for news gathering

1973 Richard Shoup develops PARC raster display

1973 Rich Riesenfeld (Syracuse) introduces b-splines

1973 Principles of Interactive Computer Graphics (Newman and Sproull) first comprehensive graphics textbook is published

1974 Motion Pictures Product Group formed at III by John Whitney, Jr. and Gary Demos

1974 Alex Schure opens CGL at NYIT, with Ed Catmull as Director

1974 SuperPaint developed by Dick Shoup and Alvy Ray Smith

1974 TCP protocol (Vint Cerf, Bob Kahn)

1974 z-buffer developed by Ed Catmull (Univ of Utah)

1974 Hunger produced by Peter Foldes at National Research Council of Canada; wins Cannes Film Festival Prix de Jury award for animation

1975 Sony Betamax recorder

1975 fractals - Benoit Mandelbrot (IBM)

1975 Catmull curved surface rendering algorithm

1975 Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak start Apple computer.

1975 Bill Gates starts Microsoft

1975 Martin Newell (Utah) develops CGI teapot (physical teapot now in the Computer Museum in Boston)

1975 JPL Graphics Lab developed (Bob Holzman)

1975 Anima animation system developed at CGRG at Ohio State (Csuri)

1976 P. J. Kilpatrick published his doctoral thesis "The Use of a Kinematic Supplement in an Interactive Graphics System".

1976 MITs Visible Language Workshop founded by Muriel Cooper

1976 Alvy Ray Smith develops "tweening" software (NYIT)

1976 Dolby sound

1976 Jim Blinn develops reflectance and environment mapping (Univ of Utah)

1976 Nelson Max's sphere inversion film

1976 Ukrainian Pysanka Egg erected in Vegraville, Canada by Ron Resch (University of Utah) to commemorate the RCMP

1976 Sony Beta home video

1977 Dan Sandin and Richard Sayre invented a bend-sensing glove.

1977 JVC VHS home video

1977 Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences introduces Visual Effects category for Oscars

1977 Nelson Max joins LLL; Jim Blinn joins JPL

1977 GKS (Graphical Kernal System) graphics standard introduced

1977 Fuchs multiprocessor visible surface algorithm

1977 Larry Cuba produces Death Star simulation for Star Wars using Grass at UICC developed by Tom DeFanti at Ohio State

1979 F. H. Raab et al. described the Polhemus tracking system.

1978 Tom DeFanti's GRASS system rewritten for Bally home computer (Zgrass)

1978 AT&T and Canadian Telidon introduce videotex graphics standard (NAPLPS)

1978 Digital Effects founded (Judson Rosebush, Jeff Kleiser, et al)

1978 Ikonas frame buffer - England/Whitton

1978 Leroy Nieman uses Ampex paint system to draw football players in Super Bowl

1978 R/Greenberg founded (Richard and Robert Greenberg)

1978 James Blinn produces the first of a series of animations titled The Mechanical Universe

1978 DEC VAX 11/780 introduced

1978 video laser disc

1978 Bump mapping introduced (Blinn)

1979 Eric Howlett (LEEP Systems, Inc.) designed the Large Expanse Enhanced Perspective (LEEP) Optics.

1979 National Computer Graphics Association (NCGA) organized

1979 IBM 3279 color terminal

1979 SIGGRAPH CORE Graphics standard

1979 Sunstone - Ed Emshwiller (NYIT)

1979 George Lucas hires Ed Catmull, Ralph Guggenheim and Alvy Ray Smith to form Lucasfilm

1980 Andy Lippman developed an interactive video disk to drive around Aspen.

1980 Vol Libre - Loren Carpenter of Boeing

1980 Apollo Computer founded

1980 Turner Whitted of Bell Labs publishes ray tracing paper

1980 First NCGA conference - Arlington, Virginia - Steven Levine, President

1980 IBM licenses DOS from Microsoft

1980 Aurora Systems founded by Richard Shoup

1980 Disney uses computer graphics for the movie Tron

1980 MIT Media Lab founded by Nicholas Negroponte

1980 Pacific Data Images founded by Carl Rosendahl

1980 Hanna-Barbera, largest producer of animation in the U.S.,begins implementation of computer automation of animation process

1980 Sony Walkman

1981 Tom Furness developed the 'virtual cockpit'.

1981 G.J. Grimes, assigned to Bell Telephone Labs, patented a data entry glove

1981 Sony Betacam

1981 Tom DeFanti expands GRASS to Bally Z-50 machine (ZGRASS) - Univ Illinois - Chicago Circle

1981 IBM introduces the first IBM PC (16 bit 8088 chip)

1981 IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications published by IEEE Computer Society and NCGA

1981 Digital Productions formed by Whitney and Demos

1981 Cranston/Csuri Productions founded by Chuck Csuri and Robert Kanuth

1981 R/Greenberg opens CGI division (Chris Woods)

1981 MITI Fifth Generation Computer Project announced by Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry

1981 REYES renderer written at LucasFilm

1981 Carla's Island - Nelson Max

1982 Thomas Zimmerman patented a data input glove based upon optical sensors, such that internal refraction could be correlated with finger flexion and extension

1982 The Last Starfighter (Digital Productions)

1982 The Geometry Engine (Clark)

1982 Jim Clark founds Silicon Graphics Inc.

1982 fractal rendering (Fournier, Fussell and Carpenter)

1982 Skeleton Animation System (SAS) developed at CGRG at Ohio State (Dave Zeltzer)

1982 Sony still frame video camera (Mavica)

1982 ACM begins publication of TOG (Transactions on Graphics)

1982 Tom Brighham develops morphing (NYIT)

1982 Adobe founded by John Warnock

1982 Atari develops the data glove.

1982 AutoDesk founded; AutoCAD released

1983 Mark Callahan built a see-through HMD at MIT.

1983 Myron Krueger published Artificial Reality.

1983 Particle systems (Reeves - Lucasfilm)

1983 ILM computer graphics division develops "Genesis effect" for Star Trek II - The Wrath of Khan

1983 SGI IRIS 1000 graphics workstation

1983 Road to Point Reyes - Lucasfilm

1983 Jim Blinn receives the first (1983) ACM SIGGRAPH CG Achievement Award

1983 Ivan Sutherland receives the first (1983) ACM SIGGRAPH Steven A. Coons Award

1983 Steve Dompier's "Micro Illustrator" is first PC paint program (for Apple II)

1983 mip-mapping introduced for efficient texture mapping (Williams - NYIT)

1983 Sony and Philips introduce 1st CD player

1984 William Gibson wrote about "cyberspace" in Neuromancer.

1984 Mike McGreevy and Jim Humpries developed VIVED (VIrtual Visual Environment Display) system for future astronauts at NASA.

1984 Robert Able & Associates produces the 1st computer generated 30 second commercial used for Super Bowl (Brilliance)

1984 Wavefront Technologies is the first commercially available 3D software package.

1984 Thomson Digital Image (TDI) founded

1984 Jim Clark receives the 1984 ACM SIGGRAPH CG Achievement Award

1984 International Resource Development report predicts the extinction of the keyboard in the next decade

1984 A-buffer (or alpha-buffer) introduced by Carpenter of Lucasfilm

1984 Distributed ray tracing introduced by Lucasfilm

1984 Cook shading model (Lucasfilm)

1984 14.5 minute computer generated IMAX film shown at SIGGRAPH 84 - 18 teams; 20 segments

1984 Universal Studios opens CG department

1984 First Macintosh computer is sold; introduced with Clio award winning commercial during Super Bowl

1984 - McDonnel Douglas introduces the Polhemus 3Space digitizer and body Tracker

1984 Radiosity born - Cornell University

1984 John Lasseter joins Lucasfilm

1984 Digital Productions (Whitney and Demos) get Academy Technical Achievement Award for CGI simulation of motion picture photography

1984 Lucasfilms introduces motion blur effects

1984 Porter and Duff compositing algorithm (Lucasfilm)

1984 The Adventures of Andre and Wally B. (Lucasfilm)

1985 VPL Research, Inc. was founded.

1985 Mike McGreevy and Jim Humphries built a HMD from monochrome LCD pocket television displays.

1985 Commodore launches the new Amiga

1985 Loren Carpenter receives the 1985 ACM SIGGRAPH CG Achievement Award

1985 Pierre Bezier receives the 1985 ACM SIGGRAPH Steven A. Coons Award

1985 Sogitec founded (Xavier Nicolas)

1985 Abel Image Research takes Robert Abel & Associates to shaded graphics business

1985 Tony de Peltrie airs

1985 stereo TV

1985 CGW predicts 90s graphics workstation

1985 Targa 16 board (AT&T) goes to market

1985 Pixar Image Computer goes to market

1985 Perlin's noise functions introduced

1985 CD-ROMs High Sierra (ISO9660) standard introduced

1985 PostScript (Adobe - John Warnock)

1985 PODA creature animation system developed by Girard and Maciejewski at Ohio State

1985 Boss Films founded by Richard Edlund

1985 MIT Media Lab moves to new home

1986 The Great Mouse Detective was the first animated film to be aided by CG.

1986 Pixar purchased from Lucasfilm by Steve Jobs

1986 Trancept Systemes founded by Nick England and Mary Whitton - graphics board for Sun

1986 CGI group starts at Industrial Light and Magic (Doug Kay and George Joblove)

1986 Softimage founded by Daniel Langlois in Montreal

1986 Apple IIgs introduced

1986 Turner Whitted receives the 1986 ACM SIGGRAPH CG Achievement Award

1986 Waldo project introduces motion capture (Digital Productions)

1986 Kajiya's Rendering Equation

1986 Omnibus assumes Robert Able & Associates and Digital Productions in hostile takeovers by John Pennie and investors

1986 Whitney/Demos Productions founded

1986 Intel introduces 82786 graphics coprocessor chip ; Texas Instruments introduces TMS34010 Graphics System Processor

1986 NSFNet

1986 Luxo Jr. nominated for Oscar (first CGI film to be nominated - Pixar)

1986 TIFF (Aldus)

1986 Scitex founded for prepress

1987 Jonathan Waldern formed W Industries.

1987 Tom Zimmerman et al. developed an interactive glove.

1987 GIF format (CompuServe)

1987 Willow (Lucasfilm) popularizes morphing

1987 Max Headroom debuts

1987 LucasArts formed

1987 Reynolds' flocking behavior algorithm (Symbolics)

1987 Rob Cook receives the 1987 ACM SIGGRAPH CG Achievement Award

1987 Don Greenberg receives the 1987 ACM SIGGRAPH Steven A. Coons Award

1987 Advanced Computing Center for the Arts and Design (ACCAD) founded at Ohio State

1987 Omnibus closes, eliminating DP and Abel

1987 Cranston/Csuri Productions closes

1987 Marching Cubes algorithm (Lorensen and Cline - GE)

1987 Metrolight Productions, RezN8 Productions, Kleiser/Walczak, DeGraf/Wahrman founded

1988 PICT format (Apple)

1988 Al Barr receives the 1988 ACM SIGGRAPH CG Achievement Award

1988 Internet Worm infects servers all over the world

1988 U.S. Patent awarded to Pixar for RenderMan

1988 Disney and Pixar develop CAPS (Computer Animation Paint System) (academy technical award in 1992)

1988 PIXAR wins Academy award for Tin Toy

1989 Jaron Lanier, CEO of VPL, coined the term 'virtual reality'.

1989 VPL Research and Autodesk introduced commercial head-mounted displays.

1989 Robert Stone formed the Virtual Reality & Human Factors Group at the UK's National Advanced Robotics Research Centre.

1989 Eric Howlett built the LEEPvideo System I HMD.v

1989 VPL Research, Inc. began selling the EyePhone that used LCD displays and LEEP optics.

1989 AutoDesk, Inc. demonstrated their PC-based VR CAD system, Cyberspace, at SIGGRAPH'89

1989 Robert Stone and Jim Hennequin co-invented the Teletact I Glove.

1989 Reflection Technologies produced the Private Eye.

1989 John Warnock receives the 1989 ACM SIGGRAPH CG Achievement Award

1989 David Evans receives the 1989 ACM SIGGRAPH Steven A. Coons Award

1989 8MM videotape introduced by Sony

1989 ILM creates the Abyss

1989 PIXAR starts marketing RenderMan

1990 J.R. Hennequin and R. Stone, assigned to ARRL, patents for the Teletact tactile feedback glove.

1990 Sense8 Corporation founded by Pat Gelband.

1990 ARRL ordered Division's first VR system.

1990 Microsoft ships Windows 3.0

1990 NewTek Video Toaster

1990 First edition of Graphics Gems published by Academic Press (Andrew Glassner, editor)

1990 U.S. Patent awarded to Pixar for point sampling

1990 Richard Shoup and Alvy Ray Smith receive the 1990 ACM SIGGRAPH CG Achievement Award

1990 3D Studio (AutoDesk)

1990 John Wiley & Sons begins publishing The Journal of Visualization and Computer Animation

1991 Division sold their first VR system.

1991 W Industries sold their first VIRTUALITY system.

1991 Richard Holmes, assigned to W Industries, patented a tactile feedback glove.

1991 World Wide Web (CERN)

1991 Jim Kajiya receives the 1991 ACM SIGGRAPH CG Achievement Award

1991 Andy van Dam receives the 1991 ACM SIGGRAPH Steven A. Coons Award

1991 Disney and PIXAR agree to create 3 films, including the first computer animated full-length film Toy Story

1991 ILM produces Terminator 2

1991 Beauty and the Beast (Disney)

1991 Kodak PhotoCD


1992 T.G. Zimmerman, assigned to VPL Research, patented a glove using optical sensors.

1992 Division demonstrated a multi-user VR system.

1992 Thomas DeFanti et al. demonstrated the CAVE system at SIGGRAPH.

1993 SGI announced the RealityEngine.

1993 Bob Stone and Andy Connell appear on BBC TV's 9 O'Clock News demomnstrating Europe's first CAD-converted VR application (the Rolls-Royce Trent 800 aero engine.

1993 Bob Stone and UK VR Team launch VRS (Virtual Reality & Simulation) - the world's first industry-funded VR initiative.

1992 Disney and Pixar get Academy Technical Achievement Award for CAPS production system

1992 QuickTime introduced (Apple)

1992 Henry Fuchs receives the 1992 ACM SIGGRAPH CG Achievement Award

1992 Softimage goes public

1992 Lawnmower Man (Angel Studios)

1992 U.S. Patent awarded to Pixar for Non-Affine Image Warping

1992 VIFX uses flock animation with Prism software to create large groups of animals

1992 Tom Brigham and ILM get Academy Technical Achievement Award for morphing technique

1993 disk array and compression codecs allow for nonlinear editing and full motion video

1993 Pixar gets Academy Technical Achievement Award for development of Renderman

1993 Pat Hanrahan receives the 1993 ACM SIGGRAPH CG Achievement Award

1993 Ed Catmull receives the 1993 ACM SIGGRAPH Steven A. Coons Award

1993 Jurassic Park - ILM and Steven Spielberg

1993 Wavefront buys TDI

1993 Mosaic browser (NCSA)

1993 Myst released (Cyan) - in 1998, it became the top selling game of all time

1993 Digital Domain founded by James Cameron, Stan Winston, and Scott Ross

1994 InSys and the Manchester Royal Infirmary launched Europe's first VR R&D Centre for Minimally Invasive Therapy.

1994 Proceedings of the 1st UK VR-SIG Conference

1994 The Virtual Reality Society was formed.

1994 Sandy Ressler "Open Virtual Reality Testbed"

1994 SGI and Nintendo team up for Nintendo 64 product

1994 ILM earns Oscar for special effects for Jurassic Park

1994 Microsoft acquires Softimage

1994 Doom hits game market

1994 Direct Broadcast Satellite service

1994 HDTV standard for transmission adopted in US

1994 U.S. Patent awarded to Pixar for creating, manipulating and displaying images

1994 Ken Torrance receives the 1994 ACM SIGGRAPH CG Achievement Award

1995 Frank A. Biocca § and J.P. Rolland §§ "Virtual Eyes"

1995 Toy Story (Pixar)

1995 DreamWorks founded (Steven Spielberg, Jeffrey Katzenberg and David Geffen)

1995 Pixar gets Academy Award for digital scanning technology

1995 U.S. Patent awarded to Pixar for image volume data

1995 John Lasseter of Pixar gets Academy Award for development and application of techniques used in Toy Story

1995 Kurt Akeley (SGI) receives the 1995 ACM SIGGRAPH CG Achievement Award

1995 Jose Encarnacao receives the 1995 ACM SIGGRAPH Steven A. Coons Award

1995 Wavefront and Alias merge

1995 Pixar goes public with 6.9M share offering

1995 Sony Playstation introduced

1996 Microsoft include Superscape's VISCAPE as part of their Internet Explorer Starter Kit.

1996 The Virtual Reality Society launches its Web site.

1996 Internet 2 unveiled

1996 Quake hits game market

1996 Marc Levoy receives the 1996 ACM SIGGRAPH CG Achievement Award

1996 Colossal Pictures files Chapter 11 bankruptcy

1996 Windows 95 ships

1997 VIFX joins with Blue Sky

1997 DVD technology unveiled

1997 Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz receives the 1997 ACM SIGGRAPH CG Achievement Award

1997 Jim Kajiya of Cal Tech gets Academy Award for development and application of CGI hair and fur

1997 Pixar interactive division dissolved

1998 Titanic becomes the largest grossing motion picture in U.S history

1998 Alias Maya released

1998 Quicktime 3.0 released

1998 Boss Films closes

1998 Riven released

1998 Sun gets back into graphics with the Darwin Ultra series of workstations

1998 MPEG-4 standard announced

1998 SGI and Microsoft form partnership to develop APIs; SGI will develop NT-based PCs

1998 Geri's Game (Pixar) - awarded the Academy Award for Animated Short

1998 Colossal Pictures emerges from Chapter 11 bankruptcy

1998 The SIGGRAPH Conference celebrates its 25th Anniversary in Orlando

1998 Michael Cohen (Microsoft) receives the 1998 ACM SIGGRAPH CG Achievement Award

1998 Pixar awarded a Scientific and Technical Academy Award for the development of software that produces images used in motion pictures from 3D computer descriptions of shape and appearance
Excepts of computer development history from the book, "Becoming a Computer Animator"
by Michael Morrison
The dawn of massive economic inequality has been ushered in by the computer. We are to the point where if you don't know computers you will be left behind. Every year this is cutting out and leaving behind larger and larger numbers of people.

Taboo Album Cover
The Exotic Sounds of Arthur Lyman recorded TABOO in 1958.
This is one of the firstpieces of Music I ever heard. I was but a small child and my Dad had wired speakers around and this was wafting through the house. Arthur was on the Andy Williams TV show many years ago. I need to get a copy of that! Also Arthur was in about 10 episodes of the old Hawaiian Eye TV show, but nobody seems to know which ones because they just went to the studio & recorded the scenes & Warner Brothers later inserted them into the shows. One episode for sure was "Across the River Lethe" because I have that one. The piece they played wasn't exactly Hawaiian or exotica-- it was Rhapsody in Blue. ?? I know they were in the episode called "Koko Kate" but I've never found it.
Arthur also appeared on the Red Skelton TV show, but I have no idea the date or episode. I have no idea who "profhummingflowah" is, but I suspect it's someone affiliated with the group called Waitiki. I think Lopaka Colon (related to Augie Colon who played with Arthur & Martin Denny) is/was part of the group, but can't swear to it.

Profile: Arthur Lyman

The Mood Merchant of Exotic Music casts his Spell Again in Waikiki
by Rick Carroll

A conch shell honks, bamboo sticks rattle, a jungle bird cries out.

It's 1958 all over again: Arthur Lyman is making the music that made him oh so famous and rich so very long ago.
He's doing it in Waikiki on weekends now before silvery-haired Mati-tip sipping couples who sit holding hands, proof old mood music still works.
Now 67, the vibraphonist Time magazine once called the "mood merchant," of exotic music, casts the same tropical spell that captivated the nation more than four decades ago.
Old favorites like "Yellow Bird, "the Haitian folk song he turned into an American standard and nostalgic selections from his first album, "Taboo," which sold 2 million copies and still haunts anyone over 50.
He still keeps time with parrot squawks, bamboo sticks and temple bells but it's been a long time since Lyman was No 1 on the nation's pop charts. "Arthur who?" he laughs. With Diamond Head crater over his shoulder and Waikiki's azure waves lapping the golden shore, Lyman looks like he just stepped off one of his old album covers.

"Isn't it beautiful," he says, "that's why I like to play here." Here is the open air bar of the New Otani Kaimana Beach hotel on Waikiki's quiet side. He plays private parties and regular gigs in Waikiki for $100- a-night, a bargain for the exotic music maker man who once commanded thousands. "I never thought my music was exotic," he laughs. "It was natural to me-the crash of the waves, the rustle of the palm trees, the birds." Over vodka in the afternoon he reminisces about the glory days. "It was rough," he said, "three months on the road, back here, three months on the road." He ran though four piano players, four bass players and three wives. Got married once on Valentine's Day in Las Vegas after appearing with Harry Belafonte. His bride, a nightclub camera girl, became his manager. "She was a good manager," he said "but we had problems when she started to tell me what to play."

Alone now, a survivor of 11 banner years on the road, he's back in Hawaii and happy, neither broke nor rich. "Wives," he said, "they got all my money. I never smelled it." On a toy piano he plunked out "You Are My Sunshine" when he was only five. "My father said, 'You're going to be a musician and he made me practice, practice, practice. He was blind and he would kick me in the butt when I hit a wrong note." At 8, Lyman made his public debut on the "Listerine Amateur Hour" on Honolulu radio station KGMB (now K-59), playing "Twelfth Street Rag." "I won a bottle of Listerine," he laughed. He turned pro at 17, playing in a Kakaako club called Leroy's. "I went to school days and played nights with a group called The Gadabouts. We did George Shearing stuff, cool jazz. I got $45 a week.

"When I got out of McKinley High School in '51, I finally told my father, I quit. I went to Halekulani Hotel and worked there as a desk clerk. "That's where I met Martin Denny," he said, "He'd heard I played vibraphone. I was making $280 a month as a hotel clerk. He said, 'You'll be making $109 a week playing for me.' I went back to music.

In late 1956, he formed his own band with John Kramer on bass, Allan Soares on piano, Harold Chang on drums and Augie Colon on bird calls. They opened at the Hilton Hawaiian Villages' Shell Bar and might be playing there still except for millionaire golfer France Ii Brown. He invited Lyman and the band to California's Pebble Beach to play for a private party during what was then called the Bing Crosby Pro-am Golf tournament. Some very important people at that party liked what they heard and suddenly Arthur Lyman had a big-time Mainland gig. "We played Vegas the next week," he said. "And then New York, Chicago, San Francisco, Tokyo and..."

In 1962, the year he turned 30, he earned $120,000, same as Willie Mays, big money in those days. He was headlining Chicago's Edgewater Beach Hotel, playing two sets a night, six nights a week. That same year he produced six albums in 45 days.

Five years later, exotic was old hat, the Beatles were hot, and Arthur Lyman was out of a job. The band broke up in Vegas in 1968-the year Janis Joplin appeared on Newsweek's cover-and they all came home to early retirement in Hawaii.

In his meteoric 12 year career, Arthur Lyman and his band produced 33 albums, won three gold records, and recorded 396 songs that even today conjure up dreamy island images of tropical escape. "We always tried to do that," Lyman said, "to get people to come here so we wouldn't have to go there but, funny thing, we were never as popular here in the Islands as we were on the mainland." He's up for a mainland tour, he said, but until that happens you can only see Arthur Lyman on the beach in Waikiki.

Arthur Lyman

Born 2 February 1932, Kauai, Hawaii
Died 24 February 2002, Honolulu, Hawaii
Considered by many to be at the top of the pantheon of exotica artists, Lyman got his start as a vibes player in Martin Denny's combo and can be heard on Denny's legendary first album, "Exotica."

Lyman's family moved to Honolulu after his father was blinded in an accident. Arthur began playing with a toy marimba and from playing along with records, was able to reproduce Lionel Hampton solos note for note. His performing career began early, when he won a talent contest on Honolulu radio station KGMB. By the time he graduated from high school, he was playing professionally with a small combo called "The Gadabouts," imitating the piano/vibes sound of George Shearing and Cal Tjader.

In 1951, he was hired to play in the bar at the Halekulani Hotel, where Martin Denny met him in the early 1950s. Denny hired him, and the two remained together for the next five years.
Denny's breakthrough success with his cover of "Quiet Village" paved a path for Lyman as well. Shipbuilding magnate and Hawaiian developer Henry J. Kaiser (of Kaiser Aluminum and Liberty Ship fame) hired him to replace Denny in his Honolulu nightclub. Soon after, Hi Fi Records in Los Angeles capitalized on Liberty's success with Denny and hired Lyman as their featured artist.
Even though the two men were competitors on vinyl, they remained close friends until the end. "He had a keen ear for music and a great imagination," Denny once remarked,"and I would say that his success and exposure paralleled mine. There were debates on who came first, but as far as I'm concerned we did it together." After both had ceased to record, Denny and Lyman often appeared together at performances on Oahu. And when Lyman entered a hospice as he entered the last stages of his fight with throat cancer, "Martin would take Arthur out in the sunshine and give a private show," according to a family friend.
Lyman's style was softer than Denny's, but he went much further in his use of exotic environmental sounds. The combination of macaw shrieks and gentle vibes was a vein Lyman mined consistently for over 30 albums. Unlike Denny, whose heavy touring schedule often forced his label to use a stand-in pianist on his albums, Lyman recorded almost exclusively in Hawaii. His Hi-Fi albums were usually recorded in Kaiser's Aluminum Dome auditorium in Honolulu, and still stand out for their superb audio qualities.
Lyman's combo included John Kramer on bass, guitar, and other stringed instruments, Alan Soares on piano and other keyboards, and Harold Chang on percussion. In between tours, the group played the Shell Bar at the Hawaiian Village Hotel for nearly 10 years, and reunited on a number of occasions thereafter. Hawaiian-born jazz vocalist Ethel Azama also appeared with Lyman in the early 1960s, and her version of "Lullaby of the Leaves" can be heard on the The Leis of Jazz.
The group appeared on numerous television variety shows in the 1960s, including "The Red Skelton Show," "The Andy Williams Show," and "The Steve Allen Show." But their best-known TV appearances were their guest spots on "Hawaiian Eye," the Robert Conrad - Connie Stevens private eye show set on Oahu. The show regularly featured the main characters hanging out at a mock-up of the Shell Bar and listening to Lyman playing one of his favorite numbers.
Lyman's signature tune was his cover of "Yellow Bird", which spent 10 weeks on Billboard's Top Ten chart in 1961, reaching #4. When his contract with HiFi ended in 1968, Lyman broke up his combo after an appearance in Las Vegas, and headed back for the islands. He was happy to leave the touring life behind: "It was rough," he once said, "three months on the road, back here, three months on the road." He went on to perform at most of Waikiki's best-known clubs, including Don the Beachcomber and the New Otani Kaimana Beach Hotel.
A Time magazine article from 1962 describes a typical stateside performance at the height of Lyman's fame:
A conch shell wailed, the conga drums thump-thumped, the bamboo sticks clattered," the magazine wrote. "The four men on stage were constantly on the move — clacking wooden blocks, scratching a corrugated gourd, flailing away at Chinese gongs, weaving rhythms that were insistent, sinuous and hypnotic. Occasionally, when the spirit moved them, they barked like seals or whooped like cranes. The happy audience at Chicago's Edgewater Beach Hotel rattled the rafters whooping back.
Lyman was a much more accomplished instrumentalist than his usually relaxed playing style suggested. He usually played with four mallets at once, a much more difficult technique than the standard two-mallet approach, more like playing a piano. Denny once called him "The best in the islands, maybe the best in the world."
He never took his success too seriously, though. He was just as proud of his awards for paddling in canoe races. His four marriages left him with little in the bank, which is one reason he kept performing until felled by throat cancer.
Lyman's many friends and fans said their final farewell by paddling canoes out from Waikiki to scatter his ashes upon the waters of Honolulu Bay. At the ceremony, Denny offered a last salute: "You are the true spirit of aloha, and may God speed you to your celestial vibes."
CD label Ryko released immaculate reissues of Lyman's best Hi-Fi albums in the late 1990s. Check them out!


1. Andy Partridge & Harold Budd “Ceramic Avenue”
2. Marconi Union “Sleepless”
3. Brian Eno & Jah Wobble “Like Organza”
4. Brian Eno “Triennale”
5. Djivan Gasparyan “7th December 1988”
6. Brian Eno “Blissed”
7. Harold Budd “Widows Charm”
8. Brian Eno “Neroli”
9. Harold Budd “The White Arcades”
10. Roger Eno “Winter Music”
11. Djivan Gasparyan “Brother Hunter”
12. Jon Hassell “Out Of Adedara”
13. Vacabou “Russia In White”
14. Brian Eno “Fractal Zoom”
15. Brian Eno & John Cale “Cordoba”
16. Roger Eno “Fleeting Smile”
17. John Cale “Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night”
18. Harold Budd “Marion Brown”



This list is evolving as bands disappear, maybe it's
just webmasters disappear!

  2. Radiohead

  Percentage of Usage of Long-Term Care HealthCare

47.8 million
: Number of Americans over age 65 in 2015.

87.9 million: Number of Americans who will be over age 65 by 2050.

6.3 million: Number of Americans over age 85 in 2015.

18.9 million: Number of Americans who will be over age 85 by 2050.

52%: Percentage of people turning age 65 who will need some type of long-term care services in their lifetimes.

8%: Percentage of people ages 65-74 who need long-term care services, 2018.

17%: Percentage of people ages 75-84 who need long-term care services, 2018.

42%: Percentage of people older than age 85 who need long-term care services, 2018.

47%: Estimated percentage of men 65 and older who will need long-term care during their lifetimes.

58%: Estimated percentage of women 65 and older who will need long-term care during their lifetimes.

33%: Percentage of people turning 65 who will need nursing-home care at some point in their lifetimes.

70%: Percentage of people in nursing homes who are women.

80: Average age of admission for women in long-term care settings.

48%: Percentage of people receiving long-term care who need care for less than one year.

19%: Percentage of people receiving long-term care who need care for between one and 1.99 years.

21%: Percentage of people receiving long-term care who need care for between two and 4.99 years.

13%: Percentage of people who will need long-term care for longer than five years.

22%: Percentage of individuals over 65 in the highest income quintile who will have a long-term care need of two years or longer. 

31%: Percentage of individuals over 65 in the lowest income quintile who will have a long-term care need of two years or longer.

The Role of Dementia

: Percentage of Americans over age 65 who have Alzheimer's dementia.

38%: Percentage of Americans over age 85 who have Alzheimer's dementia.

64%: Percentage of Americans with Alzheimer's dementia who are women.

145%: Percentage increase in the number of people who died from Alzheimer's dementia, 2000-17.

-9%: Percentage decrease in the number of people who died from heart disease, 2000-17.

8-10 years: Average life expectancy following an Alzheimer’s diagnosis.

2.8 years: Average length of time between when symptoms begin and when an Alzheimer's dementia diagnosis is made.

Cost of Care

$137 billion
: Long-term care expenditures in the U.S., 2000.

$208 billion: Long-term care expenditures in the U.S., 2015.

63%: Estimated percentage of individuals age 65 today who will have no out-of-pocket long-term care costs during their lifetimes.

13%: Estimated percentage of individuals age 65 today who will incur out-of-pocket long-term care costs of between $0.01 and $50,000 during their lifetimes.

11%: Estimated percentage of individuals age 65 today who will incur out-of-pocket long-term care costs of between $50,000 and $150,000 during their lifetimes.

4%: Estimated percentage of individuals age 65 today who will incur out-of-pocket long-term care costs of between $150,000 and $250,000 during their lifetimes.

9%: Estimated percentage of individuals age 65 who will incur out-of-pocket long-term care costs of more than $250,000 during their lifetimes.

: Estimated lifetime cost of care for someone with dementia.

$19,500: Median annual cost for adult day care (five days/week), 2019.

$48,612: Median annual cost for assisted-living facility, 2019.

$52,624: Median annual cost for a home health aide (44 hours/week; 52 weeks/year), 2019.

4.55%: Change in annual cost for a home health aide since 2018.

$102,200: Median annual nursing-home cost, private room, 2019.

1.82%: Change in annual nursing-home cost since 2018.

$161,148: Average annual nursing-home cost, private room, Manhattan, 2019.

$58,400: Average annual nursing-home cost, private room, Monroe, Louisiana, 2019.

$24.224: Median annual income from all sources for individuals who are 65 or older.

$41,125: Median annual income for households headed by people 65 or older.

19%: Percentage of long-term care costs that were paid out of pocket, 2013.

8%: Percentage of long-term care costs that were paid by private insurance, 2013.


34.2 million
: The number of Americans who have provided unpaid care to an adult 50 or over in the past 12 months.

15.7 million: The number of caregivers for someone with Alzheimer's or other dementia.

$470 billion: The estimated dollar value of long-term care provided by unpaid caregivers, 2013.

69.4: Average age of care recipient.

49.2: Average age of caregiver.

62.3: Average age of spousal caregivers.

34%: Percentage of caregivers who are age 65 or older.

>75%: Percentage of caregivers who are female.

33%: Approximate percentage of caregivers to people with Alzheimer's or other dementias who are daughters.

25%: Approximate percentage of caregivers to people with Alzheimer’s or other dementias who are “sandwich generation" caregivers, providing care to children as well as older adults.

33%: Percentage of people providing care to people age 65 or older who describe their own health as fair or poor.

63%: Percentage of dementia caregivers who say their responsibilities have led to working different hours, leaving work unexpectedly, and worrying about finances.

83%: Percentage of care provided to older adults that is delivered by friends or family members.

30%: Percentage of the population aged 65 or older who will rely on family-provided long-term care for two or more years.

34.7: Average number of hours per week worked by unpaid caregivers who have jobs in addition to caregiving.

70%: Percentage of caregivers who suffered work-related difficulties due to their caregiving duties.

44%: Percentage of caregivers who say that their work supervisor is unaware of their caregiving responsibilities.

10%: Estimated percentage of older adults who have suffered from some form of elder abuse.

7%: Estimated percentage of elder-abuse cases that are reported to authorities.

State and Federal Funding

: Percentage of long-term care services and supports that were provided through Medicaid, 2013.

21%: Percentage of long-term care services and supports that were provided through other public sources, 2013.

62%: Percentage of nursing-home residents whose care is provided by Medicaid.

20%: Percentage of Medicaid funding that went to pay long-term care costs in 2016.

38%: Expected increase in Medicaid spending for long-term care between 2016 and 2026.

$126,420: Maximum “countable” assets that a healthy spouse can retain for the other spouse to be eligible for long-term care benefits provided by Medicaid, 2019. (Actual amounts vary by state.)

$2,000: Maximum “countable” assets allowable for single individuals who are applying for long-term care provided by Medicaid. (New York state has a higher threshold: $15,450.)

$3,000: Maximum “countable” assets allowable for married couples who are applying together for long-term care provided by Medicaid.

$585,000: Maximum amount of home equity that a healthy spouse can retain, in addition to countable assets, for the other spouse to be eligible for long-term care benefits provided by Medicaid, 2019. (The limit is higher in certain states, such as California.)

$3,160.50: Maximum amount of monthly income that a healthy spouse can receive for the other spouse to be eligible for long-term care benefits provided by Medicaid, 2019. (Actual amounts vary by state.)

100: Days of care in a skilled nursing facility ("rehab") covered in full or in part by Medicare following a qualifying hospital stay.

Long-Term Care Insurance

: Percentage of adults 65 and older who have long-term care insurance coverage, 2014.

57: Average long-term care policy issue age.

55.1%: Percentage of long-term care policies purchased by women, 2018.

20.8%: Percentage of long-term care policies purchased by single people, 2018.

15%: Percentage of long-term care policies that were sold through workplace, 2018.

95.1%: Percentage of just-issued long-term policies that include home-care benefits that are at least equal to the in-facility benefit.

125: Number of insurers offering stand-alone long-term care policies, 2000.

17: Number of insurers offering stand-alone long-term care policies, 2016.

750,000: Number of individual long-term care insurance policies sold, 2002.

56,288: Number of individual long-term care insurance policies sold, 2018.

13.1%: Percentage drop in number of long-term care policies sold, 2017-18.

228,000: Number of hybrid life/long-term care policies sold to individuals, 2015.

461,000: Number of hybrid life/long-term care policies sold to individuals, 2018.

16%: Percentage of life insurance sales that are hybrid life/long-term care policies, 2017.

$1.87 billion: Annual claims on long-term care insurance policies, 2000.

$11 billion: Annual claims on long-term care insurance policies, 2017.

64%: Percentage of long-term care claims that were paid to women.

$2,169: Average annual premium, all in-force long-term care policies, 2018.

0.5%: Percentage of all businesses offering long-term care insurance to their employees.

52.2%: Percentage of long-term care claims paid to claimants between ages 81 and 90.

22%: Percentage of long-term care applicants ages 50-59 who were declined coverage.

30%: Percentage of long-term care applicants ages 60-69 who were declined coverage.

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From the guru of ColdFusion MX Web Application Construction Kit (CFWACK), you'll have to look hard to find a better book for beginners and intermediate CF users, Ben's site is full of resources and information